SPEA-J502 Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Public Affairs Instructor:
Research Project, Thursday, April 25, 2013
How Effective Is The Role Of Corporal Punishment?
Corporal punishment is used in many households though out the United States of American. In every households across the country some type of punishment is a necessary skill fore parent to have and exercise. Punishment is a necessary skill in need to be able to enable the children to develop an understanding of what is appropriate behavior. A child needs to be able to understand what acceptable and appropriate behavior is as they grow into responsible social adults. This paper goes in depth between the difference between demandingness and responsiveness styles of parenting. Over the years many styles of punishment has been a subject of controversy within many studies. Within meta-analysis of studies done by; Demuth , S., & Brown , S, Kierkus, C. A., & Baer, D, Matherne, M. M., & Thomas, A, McLanahan, S, Omer, H., & Carthy, T, Smith, C., & Kron, M looked at all of the positive and negative outcomes associated with corporal punishment. While conducting the meta-analysis, which included three interviews touches on how corporal punishment itself is different across parent. Literature Review
There are several critical qualities needed in parenting to promote a positive outcome on a child. These core qualities are parental caring, sensitivity, and attunement with the child. Demandingness in parenting authority is disciplining of the child through corporal punishment, firm supervision and tough rules. According to Matherne and Thomas, demandingness parental authority is used in the context of countering negative behaviors with physical punishment. While other scholars view responsiveness positive reinforcement as a better form of raising a child compared to demandingness. The main goal of parenting is find the attachment bond between the parent and child, thus bridging the gap between learning how to parent and as well as learning how to develop the child into an adult with or without corporal punishment. Demandingness authority is derived from a confident parent that can physical teach a child right from wrong, as well as developing a bond with the child after the use of corporal punishment. Furthermore, it is important that a child develops relationship with at least one parent for social and emotional development to occur normally. A core point in both forms parenting demandingness and responsiveness wants to provide a safe haven and confident base for the child to develop in to successful adult. The major goal of this paper is to show the relation of demandingness, styles of authoritative parenting compared to responsiveness styles of securing a positive reinforcement with the child.
Conceptualization of parenting has two main factors, responsiveness and demandingness. Demandingness parental authority is often viewed as dominance over the child through corporal punishment. In this type of parent-child bond the parents feel they are the absolute source of power accountable to no one else. Responsiveness is viewed as the parent being attuned to the child requests, thus being supportive and sensitive to the child needs. Responsiveness treats every child as an individual and fosters to the child development with positive reinforcement. Demandingness reflects the degree to which parents are demanding, have rules and high expectations for their children and it reflects the amount of controlling and monitoring parents have towards their children. The child only receives love from the parent if he or she complies with the authority of the parent, thus creating an insecure parent-child bond. Demandingness can have negative consequences in child’s development, thus a having a poor bond with the parent. The child’s development of reasoning is undeveloped because if the notice of “orders...
Bibliography: Demuth , S., & Brown , S. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes,a nd Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence Versus Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41-58.
Kierkus, C. A., & Baer, D. (2002). A Social control Explanation of the Relationship between Family Structure and Delinquent Behaviour. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 425-458.
Matherne, M. M., & Thomas, A. (2001). Family Environment as a Predictor of Adolescent Delinquency. San Diego, CA: Libra Publishers, Inc.
McLanahan, S. (1989). Mother only Families: Problems, Prospects, and Politics. Journal of Marriage and Family, 557-5580.
Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and Family therapy. Harvard University Press.
Omer, H., & Carthy, T. (2013). The Anchoring Function: Parental Authority and the Parent-Child Bond. Pamily Process, 45-52.
Smith, C., & Kron, M. (1993). Delinquency and Family Life Among Male Adolescent: The Role of Ethnicity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 69-93.
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