Cornell Notes Chapter 14

Topics: Renaissance, Florence, 2nd millennium Pages: 7 (1688 words) Published: August 25, 2013
Sydney Kraeger 102/18/13
Chapter 14 Cornell Notes

* Aeneas Sylvus doubted whether anyone could convince the Christians leaders to take arms against the Muslims * French and English armies had been fighting for over a century * The German rulers didn’t really control their states

* Spain and Italy kingdoms could not unite
* The plague took away a third of the European people
* 1200-1500 – a time of great progress because of the renaissance Rural Growth and Crisis
* 9/10 people in the country side experienced famine, epidemics, and war * Peasants, Population, and Plague
* 1200- most people were serfs
* Peasants received little for their work
* Women were subordinate to men
* Rapid population growth caused poverty
* Population was 80 million by 1300
* Three field system- two fields grew crops while the other was left fallow * Fallow- uncultivated
* Used oxen to plow
* 12th and 13th century- large Germanic migrations
* Knights belonging to Latin Christian religion slaughtered non-Christians * Draining swamps and clearing forests brought new land
* Crops production decreased after 1250
* Black death- originated in China an spread across central Asia with the Mongols * Black death killed 2/3 of the population
* Victims of black death had boils in groin and armpits, black blotches, body odor, and pain * Black death spread through fleas and rats
* People became more religious
* Social Rebellion
* Services cost more after the plague
* Peasants rebelled from nobles
* Jacquire-1385-revolt, looted castle, killed people
* Serfdom disappeared as serfs ran away
* Abundant meat because plague didn’t kill the animals
* Employers raised wages given to workers
* Mills and Mines
* Mining and metalworking expanded leading to the industrial revolution * 1086- 5,600 watermills in England
* 14th century- 68 watermills in 1 mile
* Water wheels- used water energy to grind grain
* Dams were created to ensure water flow
* Most mills were built by investors
* Water power created expansion I iron working
* Silver, lead, copper made coin, church bells, and cannons * 11th, 12th, and 13th century- stone quarrying boom
* Towns grew outward- canals changed flow of rivers
* Pollution started
* Deforestation- trees provided timber for buildings and ships * Glass melting used wood fires at high temperatures
* Iron furnaces took a lot of wood

Urban Revival
* Byzantium and Islam- the biggest, wealthiest cities
* Mediterranean, Baltic and Atlantic coasts became wealthy ports * Trading Cities
* Northern Italy, Indian ocean, and east Asia flourished because o maritime trade * 1204- Byzantine control of the passage between the Mediterranean and black sea let Venice temporarily take over Crete * Marco polo- merchant from Venice, served as an ambassador and governor * Hanseatic League- economic and defensive allies in north Germany; traded in Baltic sea * 13th century- artisans in Flemish towns developed in champagne * Important trading fairs developed in champagne

* 13th centurial- raised taxes on exports of raw wool, making clothing more expensive * Florence made their own wool industry
* Textile industry used wind and water to power machines
* Fulling- thickening and cleaning cloth by beating it in water * Venice craftspeople manufactured luxury goods (silk/cotton, glassware, mirrors, jewelry, paper) * European cities used trade to prosper

* Civic Life
* Urban life promoted social mobility
* Spain had large Jewish population because of their religious tolerance * Jews went through violent religious persecutions and expulsions * 1492- Spanish monarchs expelled all Jews because they wanted religious and ethnic purity * Guilds dominated civic life

* Guild- a group of men who worked...
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