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Cornell Notes Chapter 14

By sydkraeger Aug 25, 2013 1688 Words
Sydney Kraeger 102/18/13
Chapter 14 Cornell Notes

* Aeneas Sylvus doubted whether anyone could convince the Christians leaders to take arms against the Muslims * French and English armies had been fighting for over a century * The German rulers didn’t really control their states

* Spain and Italy kingdoms could not unite
* The plague took away a third of the European people
* 1200-1500 – a time of great progress because of the renaissance Rural Growth and Crisis
* 9/10 people in the country side experienced famine, epidemics, and war * Peasants, Population, and Plague
* 1200- most people were serfs
* Peasants received little for their work
* Women were subordinate to men
* Rapid population growth caused poverty
* Population was 80 million by 1300
* Three field system- two fields grew crops while the other was left fallow * Fallow- uncultivated
* Used oxen to plow
* 12th and 13th century- large Germanic migrations
* Knights belonging to Latin Christian religion slaughtered non-Christians * Draining swamps and clearing forests brought new land
* Crops production decreased after 1250
* Black death- originated in China an spread across central Asia with the Mongols * Black death killed 2/3 of the population
* Victims of black death had boils in groin and armpits, black blotches, body odor, and pain * Black death spread through fleas and rats
* People became more religious
* Social Rebellion
* Services cost more after the plague
* Peasants rebelled from nobles
* Jacquire-1385-revolt, looted castle, killed people
* Serfdom disappeared as serfs ran away
* Abundant meat because plague didn’t kill the animals
* Employers raised wages given to workers
* Mills and Mines
* Mining and metalworking expanded leading to the industrial revolution * 1086- 5,600 watermills in England
* 14th century- 68 watermills in 1 mile
* Water wheels- used water energy to grind grain
* Dams were created to ensure water flow
* Most mills were built by investors
* Water power created expansion I iron working
* Silver, lead, copper made coin, church bells, and cannons * 11th, 12th, and 13th century- stone quarrying boom
* Towns grew outward- canals changed flow of rivers
* Pollution started
* Deforestation- trees provided timber for buildings and ships * Glass melting used wood fires at high temperatures
* Iron furnaces took a lot of wood

Urban Revival
* Byzantium and Islam- the biggest, wealthiest cities
* Mediterranean, Baltic and Atlantic coasts became wealthy ports * Trading Cities
* Northern Italy, Indian ocean, and east Asia flourished because o maritime trade * 1204- Byzantine control of the passage between the Mediterranean and black sea let Venice temporarily take over Crete * Marco polo- merchant from Venice, served as an ambassador and governor * Hanseatic League- economic and defensive allies in north Germany; traded in Baltic sea * 13th century- artisans in Flemish towns developed in champagne * Important trading fairs developed in champagne

* 13th centurial- raised taxes on exports of raw wool, making clothing more expensive * Florence made their own wool industry
* Textile industry used wind and water to power machines
* Fulling- thickening and cleaning cloth by beating it in water * Venice craftspeople manufactured luxury goods (silk/cotton, glassware, mirrors, jewelry, paper) * European cities used trade to prosper

* Civic Life
* Urban life promoted social mobility
* Spain had large Jewish population because of their religious tolerance * Jews went through violent religious persecutions and expulsions * 1492- Spanish monarchs expelled all Jews because they wanted religious and ethnic purity * Guilds dominated civic life

* Guild- a group of men who worked in a particular trade
* Guilds trained apprentices and promoted interests with city government * Few women could join guilds
* Women had lower wages than men
* Women could socially advance by marrying wealthy men
* Merchant bankers specialized in money changing, loans, and investments * Merchant bankers gave the pope funds know as peters pence- a collection taken annually in every Latin west church * Princes/kings supported wars and courts with credit

* Florentine financiers invented checking accounts and organized share holder comps * Medici family of Florence operated banks in Italy, Flanders, and London * The Fugger’s were the biggest banking fraternity by 1500 * Latin Christians believed charging interest was sinful

* Jews dominated in lending money
* Some borrowers repaid loans in a different currency that was better for the lender * Because the Latin Christians didn’t accept interests, the got “gifts” of money * Most people in western Europe lived in poverty

* Gothic Cathedrals
* Large churches with pointed arches, tall vaults/spires, flying buttresses, stained glass windows * First appeared in France- 1140
* Buttresses stabilized high and thin stone columns
* Very tall, huge windows (stained glass)
* Man who designed the churches had little education of math and engineering * Miscalculations caused some cathedrals to collapse
* Cathedral spire in Strasbourg was 466 feet (forty story building) * Learning, Literature, and the Renaissance
* The Renaissance style included a lot of Roman and Greek aspects. * The Renaissance
* Renaissance- (14th-15th Century) “Rebirth” of Greco-Roman culture * Cities became centers of intellectual and artistic life * Began in northern Italy and spread to northern Europe
* Latin Christians acquired many manuscript of Greek and Arabic works * 13th century- two new religions developed including Dominicans and Franciscans- members taught at colleges in 1200 * Latin west developed the idea of universities

* Between 1300 and 1500, 60 universities added to the already 20 universities * Universities set curriculum and made a final exam to get the degree * Universities taught in Latin
* Scholasticism- a philosophical and theological system made to reconstruct Aristotle’s philosophy and the roman catholic theology into the 13th century * Thomas Aquinas wrote the Summa Theological exposed Christian belief * Scholasticism upset many traditional thinkers

* Some churches banned Aristotle from the curriculum
* Humanists and Printers
* Dante Alighieri wrote a poem called the divine comedy- tells of his journey through the nine circle of hell, seven terraces of purgatory, and paradise- foreshadows the later literary fashion of the Italian renaissance * Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the Canterbury tales I English- about a group of pilgrims making their way to a shrine * Europeans who studied humanities

* Dante influenced the movement of the humanists that began in Florence * Humanists tried to copy the elegance in classic Latin and Greek art * Pope Nicholas created the Vatican Library and produced accurate copies of the texts * Erasmus produced the new testament in Greek

* Improvements of printing- 1.) Movable pieces with letters 2.) Better ink 3.) The printing press * By 1500, 10 million+ printed volumes came from presses in 238 towns in Europe making a more literate population * Renaissance Artists

* Greco-Roman paintings were religious, mythological, and showed daily life * The rebirth of the artistic style was done by a painter named Giotto- made people more lucid and scenery more earthy * Artists started to use oil in their paint because it dried slower * Leonardo’s Mona Lisa was done in oil paint

* The wealthy era definitely helped the artists

Political and Military Transformation
* Stronger and unified armies developed
* Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
* Powerful noblemen controlled large estates and had a voice in the state * The church kept its traditional rights
* 1200- knights made up most of the armies
* Improved crossbows shot arrows so fast they could penetrate helmets and body armor * Crossbowmen were feared and common
* King Phillip arrested pope Boniface for saying that the papacy was superior to every human * Great Western Schism- division of Latin church between 1387-1415 when rivals existed in Rome and Avignon * Papacy regained its independence and went back to Rome, but pope could no longer challenge rising monarchs * 1066- Anglo-Norman kings their realm into neighboring Celtic communities * 1200-1400- gained control of wales and most of Ireland

* Magna Carta (1215)- said the monarchs could establish laws that confirmed the independence of the church and London, and guaranteed noble hereditary rights. * The Hundred Years War
* The conflict between the king of France and his vassals changed politics and war. * There was a marriage between Princess Isabella from France and King Edward II of England. This was supposed to be beneficial, but when no sons were produced, Isabella’s son tried to take over the French rule * English longbow was invented

* First cannon scared horses but did little damage
* 1415- first use of artillery against the French at the Battle of Agincourt * Joan of Arc- English woman who rallied the French soldiers to defeat the English in 1429. Was later burned at the stake as a witch in 1431 * 1453- French won and maintained its control

* New Monarchies in France and England
* New monarchies centralized states with fixed boundaries and stronger institutions * 1453- English monarchs overran the British Isles
* 14th century- smaller cannons were made, but were more powerful * 15th century- better firearms could penetrate armor
* Armies started to depend more on bowmen, pike men, musketeers, and artillerymen more than knights * Nobles gave money payments for military service and gave additional taxes during wars * Taxes on the English wool trade paid for the hundred years war * Jacques Coeur got many financial and social benefits by lending money to French courtiers, but then was accused of murder * Church also gave money for war funding

* English parliament proved a permanent check on royal power * English parliament included: the House of Lords, the House of Commons, and a less significant branch represented the church * Iberian Unification

* Reconquest of India- military campaigns run by Iberian Christians that tried to get back land taken by the Muslims * The knight who pushed the borders spread Christianity
* The victory gave them irrigated farmland, rich cities, ports * The way of life for Iberian Royalty became believing in god, becoming rich, and lived of labor of others * English crusaders helped take back Lisbon in 1147

* Many places were taken back
* Capturing Portugal took the crusades to north Africa where they seized morocco- learned about Saharan caravan trade * Aragon and Iberia came together when Princess Isabella of Castile and Prince Ferdinand of Aragon married * Ferdinand and Isabella sponsored Christopher Columbus’s first voyage in 1492

* While Latin Europe gained the power of wind and water, they also caused pollution, deforestation * Inability to produce enough food with the growing population led to black death in 14th century * Many wars caused kingdoms to not be tat big and have a good military * Profits in cities were taxed

* Universities and printing supported the new knowledge
* The renaissance era created many new inventions in warfare, industry, and navigation * Growing population caused an expansion in territory

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