ST.AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION
AN ASSESMENT OF TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE PROPOSED REVISION OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT IN TANZANIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS. A CASE STUDY OF NYAMAGANA DISTRICT
A RESEARCH REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF EDUCATION IN PARTIAL FULFULMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE BACHELOR OF ART WITH EDUCATION AT ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OY TANZANIA.
Corporal punishment is conflicting and confusing issue as it is discussed with different views, by individual people, organizations, and conclusion is not reached up to this moment, so it is still debatable world wide. This chapter deals with the background of the problem, statement of the problem, significance of the study, Research objectives, Research question, Limitations, and Definition of the key terms. 1.1
BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM.
Straus (1994), Hyman (1990) and Cohen (1984) provide several definitions of “corporal punishment”. In general those definitions seek to point out that Corporal punishment is the use of physical force against an individual. According to Straus (1994) Corporal punishment against a child “Is the use of physical force with the intention of causing a child to experience pain but not injury for the purpose of correction or control of the child’s behavior”. Straus further state that “The most frequent forms of corporal punishment are Spanking, Slapping, Grabbing, or Shoving a child roughly (with more force than is needed to move a child) and hitting with certain objects such as hair brush, belt, or paddle” Cohen (1984) endorses this definition by identifying specific forms of corporal punishment such as paddling, floggings and beating. Hyman (1990) provide a definition that reflects practice in school situation. He state that” Corporal punishment in the school is the infliction of pain or confinement as a penalty for an offense committed by a student”.
According to the above definitions, the issue of corporal punishment seems to be viewed differently world wide. This is because they are sides contradicting. When one side is taking Corporal Punishment as inhuman, abusing, affecting student psychologically and sociologically apart from physical effects, other side is supporting the use of Corporal Punishment as effective way of discipline the students. Countries such as United State of America are making strides in doing away with Corporal Punishment practices in the classroom. Many Asian Countries such as Bangladesh and India have made no legal provision to outlaw Corporal Punishment [Unicef Asian Report 2001].In African countries such as Kenya and Botswana, Corporal Punishment is still practiced. The United State of America developed the “National Coalition to Abolish Corporal Punishment in schools” In 1987[Greydanus ,et al, 2003]At present ,approxmately2 to 3 million cases of physical punishment are reported each year with 1000 to 20000 students requiring subsequent medical treatment as a result of the Punishment [Greydanus 2003] On the African continent the use of Corporal Punishment was practiced in countries such as Kenya and Botswana. Physical harm as a result of Corporal Punishment in both countries was also common where bruising, swelling, cuts and Occasional death as a result are the normal. Even though there were laws restricting use of Corporal Punishment in Kenya severe injuries was reported. The guideline for administering Corporal Punishment in Kenya was as follows;
Only the Head Master is permitted to administer Corporal
Punishment and he or she must use a cane or strap of regulation
size ,hitting boys on the buttocks and girls on the palm of the hands.
The head teacher may give no more than six strokes as punishment
and must be kept in a written record of all the proceeding
[Human Right Watch, 1999]
References: Bandura, A and Walters, R.H (1963) Social learning and personality Development. Rinehart and Winston, Inc: United stated of America.
Baumrind, D. (1996). A blanket injunction against Disciplinary of spanking is not warranted by the data (pediatrics), Vol. 98. Issue 4.
Cohen, C.P. (1984). Freedom from corporal punishment: One of the Human Rights of children New York Law School Human Rights Annual, Vo, 11, part 1.
Cohen S. 1996. Teachers and Pupils Attitudes and Practices Regarding the abolition of corporal punishment in schools in the Gauteng Area.
Department of Education (2002). Alternatives to corporal punishment. The learning Experience pretrial.
Human Rights watch (1999) Spare the child: corporal punishment in Kenyan schools. Vol. 11, No. 6 (A).
Hyman, I.A (1990) Reading, writing and the Hickory stick: the Appalling story of physical and psychological Abuse in American Schools. Lexington books: United States of America.
Plynn C.P (1994) Regional differences in Attitudes towards Corporal punishment. Journal of marriage and the family, Vol/ 56, pp 314 – 324.
Straus, M.A (1996) Spanking and the Making of a violent society.
TEN/MET Tanzania Educational Network/Mtandao wa Elimu Tanzania (1999).
UNICEF: Asian Report (2001) Corporal punishment in schools in South Asia. Katmandu, Nepal.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document