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Copd Paper

By BrantDumford1 Apr 14, 2013 4722 Words
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Abstract #1
Copd is at the apex of causes for mortality worldwide, with a greater incidence rate than ten years prior; systemic infections are the mainstay of the disease process. Periodontal disease has been vividly studied and the absolute foundation of the multifactorial process restrictive airways. The infection leads to inflammatory responses that perpetuates the diseased state via inflammatory mediators, and thus mediating copd. Counter arguments for obesity-related hypoxia and other namely although creditable factors are also taken into account when understanding the disease, this is because all mediating factors result in acute inflammatory response which contribute to increased inflammation and later increase stimulation in the systemic circulation, this stimulation leads to the perpetual increase in total peripheral resistance, and later comorbidities associated with cardiac functioning. The present conception in the physiology of copd and site of immense work is in regard to the understanding of the link between systemic infections. Periodontal disease has shown that there is an increase connection with the effect of this process and that of pulmonary functioning. This paper will summarize the primary epidemiological findings and compares them to clinical evidence, while setting the stage for the counter action from a public health stand point. Abstract #2:

The parenchymal process of lung disease is one that mimics a normative obstructive process; the obstruction leaves the patient with limited conduction, decreased total volume, and in chronic cases an in ability to respire at a rate conducive to the patient’s metabolic need. In most patients other deleterious manifestations arise, cardiac, systemic, pulmonary, and neural, complications. The cardiac process develops in congruence with the increase work load for the patient. Namely this is directly related to the higher incidence rate of hypertension, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension left heart dysrhythmia and the cardiac heart failure. Many individuals are characteristically plagued with the hacking, choking; disease riddled phenotypic traits of lung disease. Chronic obstructive lung disease is a process is deleterious and extremely caustic to the population.

Quantifiably the history of health and physiological disasters, teeter on the variations of environmental, physiological and social triggers, many physician, social leaders, and biologist recount how, for decades preliminary methods of prevention were unknown, for example hundreds of thousands of American miners still suffer from black lung disease, which at one time was not event defined as a diagnosis of a proponent of health issues. This in retrospect represents the inability of a physiological process’ to be understood and for a program to be successfully implemented upon realization of the disease process. The forward motion of a project can be addressed in a three tier process. Primary diverge into two different subsets one of which is blatant. This is represented in our population categorically as numerous studies to insure the implications of the physiological stimulus and segregate the vector that is causing disease. physicians do this by ensuring the qualitatively reviewing the patients history, and evaluating the possible triggers, applying these standards to medicine is what is discussed in the this paper and thus simplifying the disease physiology and anticipating future accidents, which could proliferated the occurrence of the. Prevention can also be seen specifically in the targeting of the triggers for copd, cohort studies have indicated that with reduced environmental stimuli, the preponderance of the process’s aggressiveness can be diminished if not completely sequestered. Notably copd has been noted as a respiratory illness caused by the inhalation of particulate matter. This is a particular area of interest to the study of copd as this is the action point. the leering effects of this disease process coupled with the irreversible nature of chronic fibrosis leave the medical professional, and industry with no treatment options and a mere glimmer of the a solution the causative agents that this disease stems from leave a window for improvement. The ability to move from the rubbish of the past to the nuances toward the plethora of successes in the future gives rise to the secondary level of prevention, in copd, by combating the disease in a way that is conducive to prevention rather than treatment, protects the patient in the long run. Copd and the linkage to systematic infection demarcate the area of physiological control that medical professional can clasp to. The identification of the disease in its infancy, define the obligatory venues are of possible areas of intervention. This pushes the communities to earlier detection and with success earlier diagnosis, treatment, and reduction in mortality rate due to the disease. Slow progression of these implementations is key. Almost 30% of copd patients show signs of systemic infection. As of 2008, health advisors have reason to believe that the health of your teeth and gums may have a significant effect on the overall health of your body, thus the correlation of dental health to wellness in a holistic perspective is one that must be addressed. [7] After 15 years of scientific literature and longitudinal studies the path of copd has shown to have a strong relationship between oral disease and other systemic diseases. This is paired with oral health and medical conditions which quantifiably can prognosticate the level at which prevention can be attributed. Many physiological functions are noted later in the paper and will be explicitly defined and characterized in the following order. Inflammatory mediators found in inflamed gums called “cytokines” can also enter your saliva, this protagonist of immunological response allow the biologist in coalition with physicians to mitigate a solution and a proper diagnosis. the link between lung disease and periodontal disease has been studied in but do to the process be multifactorial experimentation the results have been one of slight ambiguity; one of which studies have linked aspiration of the lungs to the pro-inflammatory effects on the lower airway, which lead to additional pulmonary impediments. Furthermore, bacteria allied with periodontal malady can cross the threshold the body’s cardiovascular system by way of infected gums periodontium, engulf the teeth’s primary sauce of structure and lead to the development of the infectious continuum, this then can perpetually migrate to all parts of the body. As the oral bacteria journeys, it may origin secondary infections, one of which is previously noted. This is how the increase incidence copd is linked to the periodontal disease process and how other secondary infection benefit from produce higher virulent species in the advent of the oral infections in tissues and organ systems. Finally, inflammation the most deleterious aspect of many disease processes of the pulmonary system, due to the reduced diameter of airway passages. The description progressive and linear physiology only gives rise to the demonstration of the noted associated with periodontal disease. The understanding of physiology shows that although we may stimulate a second systemic inflammatory response within the body which contributes to or complicates other disease entities there is still no conclusive and clear cut resolution to the effect of the copd. Whatever the direction oral bacterial may influence, it is in all patients’ best importance to uphold proper dental health and keep their mouth in a prime state of health. This is a great opening for the public health officials to communicate the sincerity of oral health. Physicians must become more accustom to wondering into the world of dental exams and there must be more referrals made in the dentist to physician venue. The primary goal of many rudimentary studies being conducted at universities throughout the world is to understand the physiological effect of oral bacteria on overall health. The target is selective and discriminatory in nature, where-as many of the population dies cardiovascular effects set in motion from the pulmonary effects produced from the periodontal effects and mediators. Public health is not as easy. It must be a holistic measure. We cannot fix the problem without first fixing the propagation of the disease breeding ground. The research must carry answers from the effects of holistic health will benefit. In regard to the best way to stop the destructive nature of the disease one should equally employ are a number of activist associated programs to aid in the development of programs for the underserved to gain access to examinations. As these studies are published, public health professionals will begin to better understand the underlying biological mechanisms that are responsible for this oral systemic connection. Disease application:

The new era of interdisciplinary dental/medical cooperation will undoubtedly result in improved patient health, with the betterment of health for and individual will continually raise the bar for the population as well as an enhancement in overall population permanency. Trepidations in gas exchange are largely instigated by provincial imbalances of ventilation profusion mismatching. COPD as a process leads to death, if not properly treated; radical states of the disease contribute to increased levels of carbon dioxide which is denoted as hypercapnia, thus with this increase there will be a direct increase in the hydrogen ion concentration as well. Other causative influences to ventilation in advanced COPD include hypertension and dysfunctional cardiac processes. This will lead to improper up VP matching. Revisions in older theories explaining the diagnostic process have perpetuated the desire to seek other contributing factors, and thus correctly make the diagnosis in a more timely fashion. Thus poor oral hygiene and systematic infection have arisen as a predominant contributor to COPD. The most noted proponents of systematic infections are periodontal gram negative and positive bacteria are which are normally not deleterious to the persons, but are aspirated in the pulmonary system and thus potentially lead to pneumonia. The oral cavity and fixed teeth act as recesses and are prime breeding grounds for the bacterial to mount a proliferative attack for the lung bound pathogens. Archetypal colonization’s of the dental plaque well-known in the mouth will possibly aspirate into the lung to cause infection. [8] Other epidemiologic studies have noted a symbiotic nature between poor oral hygiene and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The variances in the mechanisms correlate the primary role of oral bacteria in the COPD Patients 1. pathogens are potentially aspirated which stimulates deleterious effects that are causative in nature. 2. Periodontal disease is coupled with the enzymes in saliva thus there are primary effects from the barriers of the oral cavity, seen in overtly excoriated mucus membranes. This modification gives rise to the colonization of the opportunistic bacteria as noted above. If the bacteria are then aspirated into the lung, then the third implication of the secular delineation may arise. 3. Periodontal disease- the increase in the infection ration of “good bacteria”, to “bad” creates an inappropriate habitat for the protective bacteria in our oral cavity; this gives rise to the opportunistic bacterial infections namely the proliferative bacteria that create, 4. the body’s response to the infection, thus there is a shift in the immunological determinates and i.e. an increase in cytokines originating from periodontal infected tissues, (gum, oral mucosa) this tissue is similar to the tissue of the epithelial line and cause the an inflammatory response not only in the oral mucosal line; leading to edema, redness, soreness of gums, but also the individual inflammation of the brachial tract, conducting zone and the respiratory zone. Systemic infection is then a normative result, as the infection spreads, it will inhabit any organ system that is conducive to the living and proliferative requirements of that particular bacteria. Cytokines are the casual effect of the delicate balance of the indicative factors to this disease process. periodontal contagions will proliferate as noted thus they will foster the development of the primary infection in the pulmonary region by respiratory pathogens, particularly in hospital.[1] aspirating, inflammatory mediators and the pathogens will lead to pneumonia, epidemiologic studies indicate that there is a direct link to periodontal disease and copd. Neutrophils are leukocytes that are of the innate immune system and protect us from the invading agents on normal occasion. The neutrophils in question are termed t granulocytes which are definitively associated with copd, and the cortical resistance reported in this disease. Their number total peripheral count is increased in sputum, which is attributed to the increase manufacturing of the bronchial glands and smooth muscle of patients with copd. The lungs and the periphery is not spared which is important to note as the distal lung inflammation is mainly of neutrophillic in action and thus deleterious to copd patients. Macrophages are also proponents of the deleterious action of this process giving rise to increased degranulation and histamine release in response to the age meditated pathways, it is most poignant to now state that copd has three main process of reducing the air diameter. This will be overviewed and then blatantly expressed in the passage. Macrophages are attracted and activated by smoking. This process then can increase the numbers of macrophages that are present in the airways, distal airways, and sputum of patients with copd. Additionally, they release transforming growth factor-β, which contributes to the airway wall changes [5]. Dendritic cells are also activated by cigarette smoke exposure. However, cigarette smoke induces both the release of il-8 and the suppression of toll-like receptor 9-induced interferon (if)-α secretion by plasmacytoid dendritic cells [8]. COPD AND PULMONARY FUNCTION:

Fev1 forced expiratory volume over one seconds time is classically use to judged and govern the proper diagnosis of the level of copd propagation in the patient. The patient with copd the expiratory volume is changed. This change is characteristically lower and the flow-volume curve presents as a concave demarcation. There are many differing factor in the development of the disease process and as reviewed, prior smoking is the most contributing factors as reviewed. The aspect of mediating inflammatory action in the smoking patient provokes a series of inflammatory contact with any tobacco processes involving the respiratory conducting zones can and the process also affects the host defense mechanisms. In susceptible persons this effect of the smoking can lead to pathological deleterious processes and physiological defects. Airflow restraint and over inflation makes up most of the abridged physiological processes. Due to this being a progressive disorder there is characterized airway hindrance with minute or no reversibility expiratory airflow is the primary limitation, in stable copd patients this is the principal physiological defect in copd. The of association in the c reactive protein (crop) as one of the factors that contribute to the intrinsic airway constriction may be the cause of exacerbations in copd. There are mitigating factors that are attributed to the C - reactive protein and by these vary mechanisms. Mucus deposition is another significant aspect of the pathophysiology of copd this is directly related to the third leg of restriction in the reduction of the diameter of the airway. Amplified secretion from goblet cell hypertrophy promotes the exposure to various stimuli and will predispose the patient to a full onset of the multifactorial process. [6] This secretion distresses pulmonic utility in innumerable ways. Enlarged goblet cell producing higher volumes of secretion for prolong periods produce a decrease the fev1 (the forced expiratory volume in one second). The ratio is expressed as a percentage (e.g., fev1 of 0.5l divided by fact of 2.0 l gives a fev1/fact ratio [5]) which is directly linked to the reduced air radius. excess mucus leading to the reduced diameter if the respiratory zones directly promotes the obstruction.[9] additionally there is there is thickening of airway wall and infiltration with lymphocytes, related to this respiratory wall irritation and includes mucosal inflammation which is couple with edema, bronchial wall remodeling and later fibrosis of the superficial tissue of the lung. Flexible elasticity and recoil of alveoli maintain the patent stability of the airway lumen especially during cessation of the respiratory cycle. [4] Peripheral airways of patients with copd present with limitations. Limitations brought on by inflammation produce the obstruction the lumen with the influx of mucus. The airway radial decrease in copd patients is directly attributable to the culmination and equitable combinations of structured inflammatory responses and proportional airway narrowing. There is concurrent loss of elastic recoil and simultaneous loss of alveolar attachments. [3] Hyperinflation can also occur in copd, leading to an increase in functional residual capacity (fry)—the amount of air that remains in the lungs at the end of tidal exhalation. [2] Acute manifestations can create a state of hypoxia and these states. Air way flow is then measured by peak expiratory determinants, this will show minute changes in the restrictive mechanisms in the airways. Nevertheless, the patient possibly will misjudge airflow obstruction in copd predominantly and reproducibility and reliability therefore routine exercise assessment of copd is not seen as poignant and influential this is seen in direct contrast to that of asthma. There is a serial measure available foot ether typical copd patina the ^ minute walk test has proven to be quite effecting fit the minutes and distance measured. The 6-minute walk test distance (degree of reduction) correlates well with functional disability and provide prognostic information. [3]

Physiology/ muscle affects:
A number of influences add to ventilator muscle dysfunction in copd, patrons of the disease category, often carry a reduction of diaphragm strength do to secondary effects of copd. This is one of the most important and major consequences of the disease process. This particular issue sets up a volume to pressure influx, which delineated out contributes to the deleterious effects of the process in regard to the ventilation profusion ration. The conventional hyperinflation induced measures perpetuated the conventionally accredited endurance tests which measure the metabolically active and adaptable tissue of the diaphragm its self. the inability for the diaphragm to fully contract lead to moderately shorter sarcomere this is then perpetuation tin the delocalization of the proper breathing cycle. In one study the diaphragms patients with hyperinflation were measured and then equated with the persons without hyperinflation this locale stimulates the characterization of an adaptive reaction was intended to converse the undesirable effect of shortened sarcomere length. Conversely the compensatory alterations in the skeletal muscle are many and with understanding the Trans pulmonary pressure circuit we can review the Trans diaphragmatic pressure differences, of healthy and non-health copd patients. the diaphragm is not the only skeletal muscle system deleteriously effected by the process of copd, the muscle endurance in patients with copd and healthy control individuals is particularly affected In select cases many physicians once believed that there were separate disease at play when reviewing the destruction and loss of endurance in the copd patients but this also has been proven through study. The muscle deterioration is remotely connected to many process, reduced food intake, this is attributable to the reduced mental stimulation and the depressed nature that most copd patients adopt. the frequent need for oral corticosteroids, this is to reduce the inflammation but as vested earlier the corticosteroids have a negative impact on the musculature, gluconeogenesis, break down of muscle to achieve amino acids which are then in turn transferred to keno acids and later ketones. One study found a significant reduction in quadriceps endurance in patients with copd [4], whereas the other did not [5]. This finding may reflect heterogeneity in skeletal muscle function between patients with copd. Though, the slight reduction in the quantity of patients evaluated in the undesirable results (six versus 17) may also be important. Small reductions in durability of upper limb muscles (elbow flexors and adductor policies) have also been demonstrated in patients with copd [5, 6]. Thus all though the muscle strength and endurance are decreased the vac remains about 30 to 40% lower in copd, muscle fatigability is increased with the proliferation and forward movement of this process. Cardiac disturbances: cardiovascular conflicts are communal in copd and may be characterize by a complete different set of symptoms the main complication of the aforementioned. Is activated by the same factors, atrial fibrillation, ventricular dysfunction, and congestive heart failure termed (core pulmonale) may ultimately mature and complement mortality of the disease. Freshly published studies indicate that it has been anticipated that lung infection may intimately connected to the distress caused by thermogenesis in the presence of the systemic inflammation. copd affects bronchi, bronchioles and lung parenchyma with predominance in gas exchange which is an important that decrease the expiratory time is essential result in a progressive increase in fry, increasing respiratory rate during exercise, effects the fry, thus nurses in health care set up enable these constituents of health advancement by helping smoking cessation, and exercise promotion. Muscle strength is decreased in patients with copd as compared with age-matched control individuals [1, 2, and 3]. Lower limb muscles are affected to a greater extent than are upper limb muscles [1, 2, and 3]. The preferential reduction in lower limb strength may be due to a greater reduction in activity of the lower limbs in these patients. On average, quadriceps strength is decreased by 20–30% in patients with moderate to severe copd [2, 3]. However, there is considerable variability among patients, with some

Patients with copd have minute vital capacity; live on the verge of hypoxemia. Respirational contaminations and the existence of other medicinal complications, auxiliary reduce the patient’s ability to engross/respire oxygen and to exorcise carbon dioxide. Deconditioning possibly will become a residual issue and progressively determinate the patients’ health. . Providentially, this is agreeable problem to most patients and the pulmonary rehabilitation program management will take full responsibility of deconditioning assessment of airflow limitation and hyperinflation Spirometer with measurements derived from a maximal forced expiratory maneuver is the most clinically relevant test in assessing copd. airway obstruction is diagnosed when the fev1/fact (forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity) ratio is less than 0.7 l, a situation usually accompanied by a reduction in fev1 to less than 80% of predicted more detailed lung function tests are available in most pet labs. These are utilized in select instances in copd. Most commonly this occurs when there is a reduction in fact and a need to determine whether there is a concomitant restrictive disorder such as interstitial lung disease. In pure copd, fact is modestly decreased if there is air trapping and hyperinflation (rave increased). Diffusing capacity (deco) is very sensitive in detecting gas exchange abnormalities. It is usually reduced in emphysema (whereas it is normal or high in asthma) and correlates reasonably well with the pathological severity of emphysema  Therapeutic efforts to improve skeletal muscle function could lead to considerable benefits in such patients. The present review focuses on the evidence for skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with copd, as well as on potential mechanisms of and therapies to combat this dysfunction. Short courses of high-dose corticosteroids are used to treat acute exacerbations in patients with copd. Low-dose oral corticosteroids have been used chronically to treat some patients with copd, although the efficacy of this approach is hotly disputed. Chronic hypoxia adversely affects skeletal muscles. With prolonged exposure to high-altitude hypoxia, glycolytic enzyme (which is active in anaerobic metabolism) activity increases, whereas oxidative enzyme activity decreases [34]. Hypoxia also increases oxidative stress, which can adversely affect muscle performance [35]. In animals, hypoxia leads to a reduction in muscle fiber diameter [36]. Muscle fiber cross-sectional area is decreased in mountain climbers undergoing prolonged hypoxia (greater than 6 weeks) [37]. Short-term exposure to hypercapnia results in skeletal muscle weakness, but no change in fatigability [38, 39]. in acute hypersonic respiratory failure marked derangements in energy metabolism are seen, with marked reductions in apt and phosphocreatine concentrations [40,41]. Acute hypercapnia also contributes to intracellular acidosis in patients with acute respiratory failure [41]. The effects of chronic hypercapnia need to be delineated. After copd has become symptomatic, the disease is treated with bronchodilators, which can ease the patient’s dyspnea so that a wider range of activities remains tolerable. However, copd follows a relentless downward course. Supplemental oxygen therapy can prolong lives, but benefit is merely temporary. Acute exacerbations continue for all patients, and most patients eventually succumb to an acute exacerbation that cannot be reversed [5]. As noted prior there are definitive and characteristically deleterious consequences to this process, the key point is that steroid-induced myopathy has been well described, in many studies and must not be taken for granted in regard to this process. Many individuals will suffer from this and it may be than common than was initially appreciated. Histologically, both myopathic changes and generalized fiber atrophy are seen [2]. Survival of patients the mortality rate of CODP is high merely due to the leverl of severity of the comordibtiies that are attributed to the process over all when review in retosperct we can see that the COPD gives rise to the opportunistic advance that take the life not the COPD. SUMMARY:

Suppositions in the recent years have shown that clinicians and manage the underlying mechanisms in copd, even with many unanswered questions. This frequently sprouting environment and understanding of disease process allows for better treatment of the patient at large. The key is the regularly updated procedures that which are here to help clinicians. The care for patients with copd disease will only benefit the complex pathophysiology of this disorder leads to airway obstruction and often to hyperinflation. But as previously noted the treatment options are uncanny. Though the Mortality rate for this overtly virulent disease process is height the understanding of airway restriction along with gas exchange abnormalities is the saving graces in the treatment for patients. The interactions of dyspnea and the production of the functional limitation of the spirometer is a widely understood and though it quantifies the abnormalities in copd it can be quite arduous and trying. The key to monitoring the disease at this stage is to find an easier way to monitor the changes over all. Diagnosing, monitoring, of individuals is the major and burden from both individual and societal perspectives, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is studied and is an area of intensive epidemiological, fundamentally we feel the headway but with clinical research we will have to find ways of reducing the scarring, effects of fibrosis and encourage more scientist, pulmonologist and out of the box thinkers to truly dedicate their life to this cause. The important advances in the understanding of and care for copd are the epidemiological aspects of respiratory review, while the treatment of exacerbations will be addressed in other reviews in upcoming issues. Thus, more detailed lung function testing may have unique utility, but is not generally required.

1. Bernard S, LeBlanc P, Whittom F, Carrier G, Jobin J, Belleau R, Maltais F: Peripheral muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998, 158:629-634

2. Gosselink R, Troosters T, DeCramer M: Peripheral muscle weakness contributes to exercise limitation in COPD. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996, 153:976-980. Chest 1998, 113:900-905. 3. Zattara-Hartmann MC, Badier M, Guillot C, Tomei C, Jammes Y: Maximal force and endurance to fatigue of respiratory and skeletal muscles in chronic hypoxemic patients: the effects of oxygen breathing. Muscle Nerve 1995, 18:495-502.

4. Newell SZ, McKenzie DK, Gandevia SC: Inspiratory and skeletal muscle strength and endurance and diaphragmatic activation in patients with chronic airflow limitation. Thorax 1989, 44:903-912.

5. Mador MJ, Kufel TJ, Pineda L: Quadriceps fatigue after cycle exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000, 161:447-453.
6. Kufel TJ, Pineda LA, Mador MJ: Comparison of potentiated and unpotentiated twitches as an index of contractile fatigue [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998, 157:A215. 7. TIMOTHY J. BARREIRO, D.O., and IRENE PERILLO, M.D. University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 8. Diaphragmatic Fatigue and High-intensity Exercise in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 161: 118-123. 9. Quadriceps Fatigue after Cycle Exercise in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2000; 161: 447-453. 10. Skeletal muscle weakness is associated with wasting of extremity fat-free mass but not with airflow obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 733-738. 11. Coordinated Adaptation of Oxygen Transport in Cardiopulmonary Disease Circulation 2001; 104: 963-969.

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