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In this chapter, about photosynthesis, we vaguely learned about organisms that lived deep down in the ocean and they get their energy from earth. They make their own food, which makes them autotrophs, though they do this without the help of light (light independent process). Being fascinated about this process I did some research and tried to find out more about how they were discovered and what kind of environment they lived in; so I found a ted talk on this topic.
In this Ted talk, Mike deGruy, who is an underwater filmmaker and had graduated collage in Hawaii with a marine biology degree, shares his experience about how one time he went to the bottom of the oceans to examine the Hydrothermal vents. He describes each layer as he is going to the bottom. The first thing that is described and talked about is octopuses. The different types of behavior (like fighting, mating, and hunting…) are observed and described by deGruy. There is one thing that he notices that the more he goes down the more bazar and unique types of creatures with outrageous behavior are observed. As he goes through the 95% of the living space on the plant, he enters the mid ocean ridge (dark underwater). The mid Ocean ridge is a huge mountain range, 40 thousand miles long, spread throughout the globe. The mountains are enormously tall and some are so tall they burst through the ocean and create islands (ex: Hawaii). The top of this river valley is slit a part and deGruy decides to go between and observe deeper. He observed thousands of active volcanos erupting and lava and magma fillings to create new land (help making of islands and mountains). As the water goes through the magma chamber, the heat creates pressure. This makes water super saturated with minerals which are shot up like geysers also known as chimneys because they create black smoke going up about 30 feet and rising.
Around these chimneys are LIVING COMMUNITIES even though they don’t receive light! There are tube worms and

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