Conventions and Protocols Relevant to Sustainable Development (chronological)
Here is a link to a database with ALL International Environmental Agreements. We only explain a few of the more important ones for sustainable development. 1971: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat ("Ramsar Convention")
The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e. to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value. 1973: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) CITES is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival and it accords varying degrees of protection to more than 33,000 species of animals and plants. The text of the Convention was concluded at a meeting of representatives of 80 countries in Washington, D.C., United States, in 1973. It entered into force after the 10th ratification by a signatory State in 1975. 1982: Protocol to Amend the Ramsar Convention ("Paris Protocol") The Paris Protocol, adding Article 10 bis to the text of the Convention, was adopted at an Extraordinary Conference of the Contracting Parties held at UNESCO headquarters in Paris in December 1982. The Protocol, which came into force in 1986, established a procedure for amending the Convention. Almost all Contracting Parties have now accepted the Paris Protocol, and new Contracting Parties normally join the Ramsar Convention as amended by the Paris Protocol and the Regina Amendments. 1985: Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer When the Vienna Convention was adopted in 1985, it became an important legal basis for taking international action to protect the Earth’s stratospheric ozone layer. Among the objectives set out in the Convention is for Parties to promote cooperation by means of systematic observations, research and information exchange on the effects of human activities on the ozone layer and to adopt legislative or administrative measures against activities likely to have adverse effects on the ozone layer. 1987: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of a number of substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing fluorine-only do not harm the ozone layer). The treaty was opened for signature in 1987 and entered into force in 1989. Since then, it has undergone five revisions, in 1990 (London), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing). 1987: Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development ("Brundtland Report")
The concept of 'sustainable development' was crystallized and popularized in the 1987 report of the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development - the Brundtland Commission - which drew upon long established lines of thought that had developed substantially over the previous 20 years. The Brundtland Commission's shorthand characterization of 'sustainable development' is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". The prominence given to 'needs' reflects a concern to eradicate poverty and meet basic human needs, broadly understood. The concept of...
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