Fat provides the body with energy, it is stored as body fat if too much food is eaten, and it is in meats, oil, nuts. Fat insulates the body against rapid heat loss. It helps the brain and the nervous system. Without fat this you may have weight loss, always tired, and not enough energy to get through the day. Carbohydrate
Carbohydrates also provides the body with energy, it is in lentils, bread, beans, oats etc. You need them for physical activities and are important for throughout life. Without carbohydrate in our bodies we could lose weight, become tired and not having enough energy. Protein
Protein builds, maintains, and replaces the tissues in your body, it is good for the brain, blood, skin and other tissue, it is in eggs, beans, meat, milk, cheese, nuts, lentils, fish, tofu. Without protein it can stop babies and children growing and developing properly, and they may be more prone to illnesses and not as strong to fight them off. Fibre
Fibre helps keep a healthy bowel, this cannot be digested, it adds bulk to food, is in bread, rice, pasta, cereals, potatoes, fruit and vegetable skin. Without fibre you could get constipation (not being able to go the toilet, and stomach ache), and when your older you may have an heart attack or a stroke. It can make you feel dizzy and hungry if not enough of it.
Water provides the body with minerals ad hydrates the body, it makes up two-thirds of a human body weight. Without water you would die, and it is very good for your skin. Without water you become very dehydrated, hard to concentrate and constantly lost throughout the day. You need to keep replacing the water in your body throughout the day. Minerals
Minerals helps build bones and teeth, this includes calcium, iron, fluoride, and are usually in most foods. Helps your body grow, develop, and stay healthy. Without iron it can cause tiredness, you can be irritable and struggle to concentrate on things. Without calcium you may have brittle bones and poor teeth. Folic acid is essential in the three months on pregnancy to prevent birth defects such as cleft palate, cleft lip or spina bifida. Without sodium you could get high blood pressure and may have a stroke. Vitamins
Vitamins help the body to maintain a healthy body, they are in fruits and vegetables and oily fish. There is a lot of food which has vitamins in. made by plants and animals. They help body growth, maintain and repair the body. Without vitamin A you may be night-blindness. Without vitamin B it can cause confusion, loss of appetite, itchy irritated eyes/nose/mouth/throat/skin, tiredness, breathing difficulties and dizziness. Without vitamin C it can cause tiredness, bleeding gums and may take you wounds heal slower. Vitamin D helps prevent heart failure, a heart attack or a stroke. If pregnant, the baby needs vitamin D to help prevent rickets and fits. Without vitamin E it can cause you not to be able to get pregnant and may have weak muscles.
The government has promoted the children to eat healthily by healthy meals in schools and nurseries and the snacks in school are fruits and vegetables. In England the School Trust Fund has been promoted to ensure children to have their 14 nutrition based standards and 5 food based standards. It transforms food and food skills, and promotes the quality of food in schools.
4.2 Explain how to establish the different dietary requirements of children and young people Religious and Cultural Needs
For example, if there was a Muslim child in a setting, they are not allowed to eat pork. The Muslim child would have halal meat. So the child wouldn’t choose sausages for a school dinner, they will have pasta or something what is halal. Medical Conditions
For example, if a child has diabetes then they may need to have an injection before they eat, and they need to limit their sugar intake, they may need to have to eat something with sugar in at certain times of day. Allergies
For example, if a child has an allergy to nuts, they can have a allergic reaction to any food that has nuts in it, it may cause the throat to swell and the airways with get tighter and can make you have difficulty to breath. Personal Preferences (likes/dislikes/choices)
For example, if a child is a vegetarian, then I would provide fruit, vegetables, and may have quorn which is made of mushrooms, so we can provide them with the meals of their choice.
You would find this information in the kitchen, office, staff room and maybe in the classroom.
4.3 Describe basic food safety when providing food and drink to children and young people When preparing a snack/lunch for the children we need to do the four C’s which are Cleaning, Chilling, Cooking and Cross-Contamination. Before preparing food, you need to wash your hands, and you need to wash them after touching raw food, especially meat, and after going to the toilet. The worktops, chopping boards and utensils need to be clean every time they have been used, especially when being used with chicken, raw meat and eggs. Make sure the dish cloths and tea towels are washed regularly, they carry a lot of germs after being used a few times. When storing food, make sure you check the dates regularly to see if anything is out of date, store raw meat at the bottom of the fridge to avoid juices dripping on other foods and keep raw meat and fish separately. Do not leave food out at temperature; store it as soon as you can. When preparing food, remove watches, bracelets, rings and jewellery, tie your hair back and wear an apron, cover open cuts up with a coloured, waterproof plaster, disinfect the work tops before preparing foods and don’t touch your nose or mouth, or cough and sneeze over the food. When serving the food, use clean utensils that are not cracked or chipped, provided all the children with their own cups and utensils and make sure all the adults and children wash their hands.