Introduction Managers and leaders in any organization are expected to influence the actions of their employees through several channels. Some of these include communicating with staff members, stimulating subordinates to work hard and ensuring that all the resources within the company are allocated well. These expectations can either be met successfully or unsuccessfully. Numerous researchers felt the need to come up with theories that govern successful leadership. One of these theories is known as the contingency theory. An analysis of the contingency theory Fielder (1964) came up with this approach to leadership after realizing that leaders could function well if they changed their styles to suit the situation at hand. This is where the name contingency originates. Fielder conducted several studies of effective and ineffective leaders. Thereafter he concluded that the most successful approach would be to match organizational settings with leadership styles. These two parameters form the basis of the contingency theory of leadership. According to Fiedler, leadership style may be defined as the way leaders and employees interact with one another. One cannot claim that a manager's leadership style changes from time to time. On the contrary, this is a fixed parameter since every leader has a different personality. The latter term largely affects the nature of the leadership style. Since this trait is important, Fielder came up with a method for categorizing leadership styles. He used the Least Preferred Coworker Scale (LPC). The Scale is applied only to leaders; the latter are asked to rate the person they feel has worked very poorly with them. The scale starts from one to eight and may be a classification of a co-worker from the past or the present depending on which worker was the worst. Examples of personality traits that guide the scaling process include; •Unfriendly versus friendly workers •Hostile versus supportive •Guarded versus open
During 1950 and 1960, some small group decision making developed the idea of contingency theory. At the end of 1950s, academic schools began to utilize the contingency idea into organization theory. The term “contingency theory was created, it challenged the traditional management notion: finding the one best way to organize. Together with special and united notion of subsystems, the contingency theory drew theorists’ attention and obtain acceptance. Then more and more researchers took part in studying….
Fiedler 's Contingency Theory of Leadership
by Patrich Antoine
Managerial leadership has influenced organizational activities in many ways. These influences include motivating subordinates, budgeting scarce resources, and serving as a source of communication. Over the years researchers have emphasized the influences of leadership on the activities of subordinates. These emphasis by researchers led to theories about leadership. "The first and perhaps most popular, situational theory to be advanced was….
The contingency approach to management emerged from the real life experience of managers who found that no single approach worked consistently in every situation. The basic idea of this approach is that number management technique or theory is appropriate in all situations. The main determinants of a contingency are related to the external and internal environment of an organisation.
The process, quantitative, behavioural, and systems approaches to management did not integrate the environment. The….
Statement of Understanding
Contingency and Situational Theories of Leadership
Successful organizations have one thing in common that sets them apart: dynamic and effective leadership (Hambleton, 1982). So what is it that makes them dynamic and effective?
Before diving into the different theories of leadership, I decided to spend some time understanding what exactly leadership is. To understand what leadership is I had to start with the root of the word “lead”. The definition of lead according….
viewpoint is a more recent development of organizational theory that attempts to integrate a variety of management approaches and proposes that there is no best way to organize a corporation or lead a company. Instead, the optimal course of action is contingent or dependent upon the specific internal and external situation a manager may find themselves in. The contingency approach claims that past theories, such as Max Weber's bureaucracy theory of management and Taylor's scientific management, are….
Initial Action ((by person detecting the FIRE)):
*Activate the nearest manual activator for General Alarm (six or more short blasts followed by one prolonged blast).
*Advise the Officer of the Watch
*If possible, extinguish fire with nearest extinguisher
*If unable to extinguish, close all doors/openings and proceed to Emergency Stations
When the Emergency Signal Sounds:
o All persons on board muster at their respective muster stations;
o All groups conduct a….
Model of Power
R. A. Williams
BA590 - Organizational Behavior, Grantham University
July 5, 2011
The Strategic Contingency Theory is expostulated such that when an organization confronts a problem that threatens its existence the sub-unit that has the ability to successfully manage the problem will gain power and influence. This theory posits three variables to illustrate the exercise of power: uncertainty, substitutability, and centrality. Identified herein is a discussion….
CHI-SQUARE AND TESTS OF CONTINGENCY TABLES
Hypothesis tests may be performed on contingency tables in order to decide whether or not effects are present. Effects in a contingency table are defined as relationships between the row and column variables; that is, are the levels of the row variable diferentially distributed over levels of the column variables. Significance in this hypothesis test means that interpretation of the cell frequencies is warranted. Non-significance means that any differences….
processes that define the main theories and how leaders use the key model components to achieve desired outcomes. This paper will thoroughly describe these theories in detail and list numerous advantages and disadvantages of each. Though seemingly dissimilar on the surface, each leadership theory presented in this paper share the objective of obtaining the goals of the organization, and when combined these theories can lead to the highest quality leadership. The theories that will be discussed in this….
the application of contingency theory on its leadership style.
2.0 Problem Identification:
The problem that Temasek Holdings is dealing with is about the company’s leadership style. After the global financial crises the company suffered a lot and the value of its investment portfolio felled by more than 30 per cent. The CEO at the time Ho Ching, was too classical in her leadership approach failing to use modern leadership structures like the contingency theory and situational leadership models….