The Lesson Activities will help you meet these educational goals: Science Inquiry—You will conduct online research and use an online simulation in which you will collect information, make observations, analyze results, and communicate your results in written form and draw conclusions about your findings. STEM—You will apply scientific tools and knowledge to analyze real-world situations to gain insight into careers in science, technology, engineering, and math. 21st Century Skills—You will employ online tools for research, use critical thinking and problem solving skills, and communicate effectively to assess and validate information. ________________________________________________________________________________
Write a response for each of the following activities. When you have finished, submit your work to your teacher. Check the rubric at the end of this document to make sure your work is meeting the expected criteria.
1. Earthquakes 1
Before you answer the questions below, investigate how earthquakes are measured and how the intensity of earthquakes is studied. Read about how earthquakes can be useful. If you wish, you may conduct additional research to answer the questions. If you use information from a source, remember to cite it.
a. How does the Richter scale best demonstrate the power and the destructive nature of an earthquake?
Type your response here: The Richter scale is used to rate the magnitude of an earthquake -- the amount of energy it released. This is calculated using information gathered by a seismograph.Richter ratings only give you a rough idea of the actual impact of an earthquake, though. As we've seen, an earthquake's destructive power varies depending on the composition of the ground in an area and the design and placement of man-made structures. The extent of damage is rated on the Mercalli scale. Mercalli ratings, which are given as Roman numerals, are based on largely subjective interpretations
b. How does the Mercalli scale best demonstrate the power and the destructive nature of an earthquake?
Type your response here: The Richter scale measures the force of earthquakes mechanically. The Mercalli scale measures the damage caused by earthquakes. The location of the epicenter of an earthquake can result in a great variation in damage amounts.
c. The physical damage to buildings from the March 2011 earthquake in Japan was remarkably minor compared with the expected outcomes based on an 8.0 Richter scale measurement. However more than 20,000 people died from the resulting tsunami. Which of these two scales, if either, best considers the destructive result that can occur from earthquakes, or should there be another scale used specifically to measure this hazard?
Type your response here: Mercalli scale measures the damage caused by earthquakes
2. Earthquakes 2
People study how to make cities safe during earthquakes. That will be your goal in this activity. The International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, a group associated with the United Nations, has developed a simulation to help people plan for earthquakes. Use the simulation to see how well you do in preparing a village for an eventual earth quake. After you have completed the simulation, answer these questions.
a. How well did you do in preparing the town to prevent massive destruction?
Type your response here: I made the school and the hospital but I didn’t pass.
b. How might you change your planning if you played the game a second time?
Type your response here: I would create more stable homes to get the people out of the hurricane.
c. What was the most difficult part of the simulation?
Type your response here: Getting all of the people housed.
d. How might city engineers who live in areas prone to earthquakes use this program?
Type your response here: They would be able to figure out where to put housing and schooling and hospitals.
These rubrics will be used by your teacher to grade your assignment.
Earthquake 1: 20 maximum
Earthquake 2: 20 maximum
discusses advantages and disadvantages of the Richter scale (3 points) provides evidence that game was played (5 points)
provides details and examples to support discussion of Richter scale (3 points) defines ways in which playing a second time would change results (5 points) discusses advantages and disadvantages of the Mercalli scale (3 points) provides detailed feedback regarding difficult aspects of the game (5 points) provides details and examples to support discussion of Mercalli scale (3 points) provides specific details about how a city engineer could use this program (5 points) explains why neither scale is useful for tsunamis (4 points)
gives details about current tsunami warning system (4 points)