“ Consumer Knowledge”
CK is the information stored in memory that is relevant to the purchase, consumption and disposal of goods and services.
Brand Associations: Linkages in memory between the brand and other concepts, these linkages (what consumers know) are known as Beliefs/Perceptions
BA include beliefs about brand’s attributes and its consumption benefits Ex. Of consumer responses are: want to buy brand extensions, recommend brand and pay a higher price for the brand
Ex. Of BA: perceptions about brand’s quality and perceptions of brand as a social status.
Positive brand associations (+brand quality)
A brand status assoc. only helps the likelihood of buying brand extensions
*****TYPES OF CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE:
Product knowledge: information in consumer’s memory about products (knowledge of product category and knowledge about brands in this category)
Product Category Knowledge: Prereq starting point for developing demand in marketplace. What cons know about a general product category.
Brand Knowledge: Specific brand within product category. Most imp aspect, whether consumers are aware of brands existence. Before product enters consideration set it needs to enter awareness set. In 2004 americans were most aware of Coca Cola and least of Progresso soups. Amazon, partnership; “if its on amazon it must be good” J&R
Top of the Mind Awareness: brand that is remembered or thought of first. Recall from memory.
Name recognition: Identify familiar names from a list. *Recognition-based estimates have a higher level of awareness.
Each brand in the awareness set has a set of associations, which may include product attributed and benefits, also product slogans, product endorsers, sponsorships, advertising campaigns, logos,etc.
Brand Image: Entire array of associations activated from memory when consumers think about the brand.
*Image Analysis: Examining the current set of brand associations that exist in the marketplace. The initial step is to identify assoc. by asking consumers “What comes to mind when you think about brand or product name?” This approach assumes consumers accurately report their brand image. The second step is to asses the strength of a brand’s associations by: count how many consumers report a particular assoc when responding to what comes to mind first when they think about the brand. Or ask consumers to indicate the extent to which they perceive the brand as being linked to an assoc. ex: indicate perceptions of brand’s quality on a scale from high quality to low quality-> approach used by the Reputation Institute and Harris Interactive to asses corporate image; corporate reputation. Higer reputation quotient rating=more favorable corp imag.
Top performers in RQ procedure: Johnson and Johnson. Average stability measure 52%
Perceptual Mapping: form of image analysis, that derives brand images from consumer’s similarity judgements- ask cons to judge the similarity of those brands examined in the image analysis. ->”How similar are brands A and B?” and report opinions from extremely similar to extremely dissimilar. *Brands that are perceived as being similar are located CLOSE to one another on the perceptual map, those different are farther apart.
Advantage of p.mapping is that it doesn’t require identifying the particular sets of important attributes that drive consumer’s brand image. Replaced by similarity judgements. Good to suggest new products by asking consumers about their ideal brand. Ideal brand is then located in the perceptual map in a position unoccupied by existing brands, companies can see an opportunity to introduce a product in the vacant perceptual space. Ex on chart: ideal brand would represent product with great taste and few calories.
Building brand knowledge entails building an assoc. between brand and another concept. Sometimes this concept already exists in cons memory but its missing the linkage between...
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