a) Factual Review Questions Chapter 6
2. Explain why the implementation of total quality requires cultural change. It has been said that every company, either big or small, has an organizational culture. This “culture” is, in short, the manifestation of the values and traditions that guide the everyday operation of a business organization. This “culture” is typically deeply entrenched in the mentality or the firm, from management, down to the last employee. Therefore, a successful implementation of total quality must necessarily require changing those obsolete values, traditions, and business practices, or in other words, the company organizational culture. 5. Why is change so difficult for people?
In life, there are not easy changes. Human beings, in general, don’t like to the uncertainty that changes may bring. People exhibit the same behavior in their professional lives when changes are impending. Many people focus on the perceived (or real) threats to their status, habits and/or security. For this people most changes inspire fear, insecurity, and bring the possibility of extra responsibilities. Not an easy sell! 8. List and describe the strategies that can be used to overcome resistance to change. The following strategies can be implemented in order to overcome resistance to change: -
Involve potential resisters: If the people affected by the change are involved, his ideas are listened, and are genuinely convinced that they have a say about the changes, they can turn from resisters to advocates. -
Avoid surprises: As we discussed earlier, people does not appreciate changes, and sudden changes are even less welcomed. So, in order to minimize the possibility of resistance is very important to avoid surprises. Let’s remember that people in a work environment need stability, and predictability. Surprises will only turn potential resistors into committed ones. -
Move slow at first: Don’t attempt to make drastic changes from the beginning. If potential resisters perceive you are rushing into changes, they may become distrustful and will only increase their resistance. -
Start small: Changes are more likely to be accepted when they are small and flexible. A good approach is to start a pilot test to make everyone familiar with the proposed changes. The testing is also beneficial, as it can help identify areas that need adjustment or correction. -
Create a positive environment: Is the managers responsibility to create a positive working environment, avoiding “do as I say, not as I do” attitudes. Managers must work hard on implementing a system of reward and recognition where employees are recognized and rewarding if a sincere effort to improve has been made, even if the results are less than satisfactory. -
Incorporate change: People may accept changes if these are made within the existing organizational culture. Although this is not always feasible, if it’s possible, it should be attempted. -
Reward people: Using quid pro quo (rewarding) to compensate people for extra effort during change implementation, is a proven strategy to show employees that their effort are appreciated. -
Respond quickly and positively: When potential resisters express concerns or have questions about the process, these questions/concerns must be addressed quickly. If questions are not answered on time, the doubts get increased, and the concern intensify. Therefore, a quick answer, given in a positive manner (not offensive or impatient), can often eliminate the concern way before it becomes a problem. -
Work with leaders: People tend to follow the leaders. This is also true in a business organization. Consequently, if from the beginning of the change process, the leaders are involved, and their support is secured, changes are more likely to be accepted by most of the employees. -
Treat people with dignity and respect: This strategy is self-explanatory. You cannot expect people to buy into changes if they are bullied and...
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