1. Mr Wright’s admission states that he has CCF (congestive cardiac failure). Clearly define CCF. What organs and which body systems are affected by this disorder?
Congestive cardiac failure defined
Congestive cardiac failure (CCF) is a progressive disease of the heart, which involves loss of pumping ability by the heart. Congestive cardiac failure occurs when the myocardium loses its ability to pump enough blood to meet the body’s metabolic needs and is generally accompanied by fluid accumulation in the body tissues, especially the lungs. The build–up of fluid affects the normal function of the heart, pulmonary circulation, blood pressure, the distribution of oxygen and nutrients, and electrolyte balance. Where oedema occurs in the body depends on the part of the heart that is affected by heart failure. Heart failure is almost always a chronic, long term condition, although sometimes it can develop suddenly. Pump failure usually occurs in a damaged left ventricle, but may also happen in the right ventricle. Usually, left ventricle heart failure develops first [Springhouse 2009 p38].
Usually the loss in pumping action is a symptom of an underlying problem, such as coronary artery disease [Springhouse 2009 p38]. Other conditions that may contribute to CCF are:
High blood pressure
Myocardial infarction - where scar tissue hinders the normal working of the heart muscle
Impairment of a heart valve Congenital defects of the heart Myocarditis – an inflammation of the muscular tissue of the heart (myocardium) Cardiomyopathy - a disorder of the heart muscle or myocardium, generally of unknown causes
Endocarditis - an inflammation of the heart valves and the endocardium
[Medicinenet (2009) p1]
Heart failure can be classified as:
Left-sided failure - is a result of ineffective left ventricular contractile function, which affects the hearts ability to pump blood forward from the left side of the heart.
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