Confucianism Legalism Taoism

Topics: Han Dynasty, Taoism, Confucianism Pages: 26 (521 words) Published: December 23, 2014
Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY

* 551 – 479 B.C.E.
* Born in the
feudal
state of Liu.
* Became a
teacher
and editor of
books.

Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum
(Binding
force of an enduring stable
society)
Ren --> humaneness, benevolence,
humanity
Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy
Do not do unto others what you
would
not want others to do unto you.
Yi --> Righteousness

1. Ruler

Subject

2. Father

Son

3.
Husband

Wife

4. Older
Brother

Younger
Brother

5. Older
Friend

Younger
Friend

*

Status

* Age
* Gender

* The single most important

Confucian
work.
* In Chinese, it means
“conversation.”
* Focus on practicalities of
interpersonal
relationships and the relationship
of

* Knowing what he knows and knowing
what he
doesn’t know, is characteristics of the
person
who knows.
* Making a mistake and not correcting it,
is
making another mistake.
* The superior man blames himself; the
inferior man blames others.

* 372 - 289 B.C.E.
* Disciple of Confucius.
* Starts off with the assumption that
“people
are basically good.”
* If someone does something bad,
education,
not punishment, is the answer.
 Good people will mend their ways

* The emperor is the example of

proper behavior --> “big
daddy”
* Social relationships are based
on
“rites” or “rituals.”
* Even religious rituals are
important for SOCIAL, not

INDIA
1. Brahmin
2.
Kshatriyas
3. Vaishyas
4. Shudras
Untouchab
les

CHINA
1. ScholarGentry
2. Peasants
3. Artisans
4.
Merchants
Soldiers
Imperial
Domestic
Nobility
Slaves

* 280? - 233 B.C.E.
* Han Fe Zi.
* Lived during the
late Warring
States
period.
* Legalism became
the political
philosophy of the
Qin [Ch’in]

1. Human nature is naturally
selfish.
2. Intellectualism and literacy is
discouraged.
3. Law is the supreme authority
and
replaces morality.
4. The ruler must rule with a
strong,
punishing hand.

One who favors the
principle that individuals
should obey a powerful
authority rather than
exercise individual
freedom.
The ruler, therefore,
“cracks his whip” on the
backs of his subjects!

* Not sure when

he
died.
[604 B.C.E. - ?]
* His name
means
“Old Master”
* Was he
Confucius’

* The basic text of Daoism.
* In Chinese, it means The Classic
in
the Way and Its Power.
* “Those who speak know nothing:
Those who know are silent.”
These words, I am told,
Were spoken by Laozi.
If we are to believe that Laozi,
Was himself one who knew,
How is it that he wrote a book,

1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the
universe. It is a force that flows
through
all life.
2. A believer’s goal is to become one
with
Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly
or
the man?” story.]
3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its
course.”
--> “The art of doing nothing.”
--> “Go with the flow!”

To escape the “social, political, &

cultural traps” of life, one must
escape by:
1. Rejecting formal knowledge and
learning.
2. Relying on the senses and
instincts.
3. Discovering the nature and
“rhythm” of the universe.
4. Ignoring political and social laws.

*

*

Feminine

Masculine

* Passive

* Active

*
Darkness

* Light

* Cold

* Strong

* Weak

* Heaven;
Sun

* Earth;
Moon

* Warmth

How is a man to live in a world
dominated by chaos, suffering,
and absurdity??
Confucianism --> Moral order in
society.
Legalism --> Rule by harsh law &
order.
Daoism --> Freedom for individuals
and
less govt. to avoid
uniformity and conformity.

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