Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS
* 551 – 479 B.C.E.
* Born in the
state of Liu.
* Became a
and editor of
Li --> Rite, rules, ritual decorum
force of an enduring stable
Ren --> humaneness, benevolence,
Shu --> Reciprocity, empathy
Do not do unto others what you
not want others to do unto you.
Yi --> Righteousness
* The single most important
* In Chinese, it means
* Focus on practicalities of
relationships and the relationship
* Knowing what he knows and knowing
doesn’t know, is characteristics of the
* Making a mistake and not correcting it,
making another mistake.
* The superior man blames himself; the
inferior man blames others.
* 372 - 289 B.C.E.
* Disciple of Confucius.
* Starts off with the assumption that
are basically good.”
* If someone does something bad,
not punishment, is the answer.
Good people will mend their ways
* The emperor is the example of
proper behavior --> “big
* Social relationships are based
“rites” or “rituals.”
* Even religious rituals are
important for SOCIAL, not
* 280? - 233 B.C.E.
* Han Fe Zi.
* Lived during the
* Legalism became
philosophy of the
1. Human nature is naturally
2. Intellectualism and literacy is
3. Law is the supreme authority
4. The ruler must rule with a
One who favors the
principle that individuals
should obey a powerful
authority rather than
The ruler, therefore,
“cracks his whip” on the
backs of his subjects!
* Not sure when
[604 B.C.E. - ?]
* His name
* Was he
* The basic text of Daoism.
* In Chinese, it means The Classic
the Way and Its Power.
* “Those who speak know nothing:
Those who know are silent.”
These words, I am told,
Were spoken by Laozi.
If we are to believe that Laozi,
Was himself one who knew,
How is it that he wrote a book,
1. Dao [Tao] is the first-cause of the
universe. It is a force that flows
2. A believer’s goal is to become one
Dao; one with nature. [“The butterfly
the man?” story.]
3. Wu wei --> “Let nature take its
--> “The art of doing nothing.”
--> “Go with the flow!”
To escape the “social, political, &
cultural traps” of life, one must
1. Rejecting formal knowledge and
2. Relying on the senses and
3. Discovering the nature and
“rhythm” of the universe.
4. Ignoring political and social laws.
How is a man to live in a world
dominated by chaos, suffering,
Confucianism --> Moral order in
Legalism --> Rule by harsh law &
Daoism --> Freedom for individuals
less govt. to avoid
uniformity and conformity.
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