* Founder: Confucius
* A Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. * The philosophy of Confucius emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. *
Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. *
Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death. * Where: China
* When: c. 500 B.C.E.
* How: In a way that he travelled around China teaching people. He taught music, literature, Civics, Ethics and Science
SACRED TEXT: The Five Classics (Wujing), The Four Books (Sishu) *
The Four Books
Great Learning (Ta Hsueh) - Originally one chapter in the Classic of Rites. It consists of a short main text attributed to Confucius and nine commentary chapters by Zeng Zi, one of Confucius's disciples. Its importance is illustrated by Zeng Zi's foreword that this is the gateway of learning.It is significant because it expresses many themes of Chinese philosophy and political thinking, and has therefore been extremely influential both in classical and modern Chinese thought. Government, self cultivation and investigation of things are linked. *
Doctrine of the Mean (Chung Yung) - Another chapter in Classic of Rites, attributed to Confucius' grandson Zisi. The purpose of this small, 33-chapter book is to demonstrate the usefulness of a golden way to gain perfect virtue. It focuses on the Way (道) that is prescribed by a heavenly mandate not only to the ruler but to everyone. To follow these heavenly instructions by learning and teaching will automatically result in a Confucian virtue. Because Heaven has laid down what is the way to perfect virtue,...
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