• Answer Practice Test question #4 on Ch. 1 (p. 26) of the Christensen et al. textbook. What is the reasoning behind your answer?
4. If you conducted a study in which you wanted to determine why help is not given to people who obviously need it, with which of the following objectives would you have conducted the study?
Explanation- scientific research is to understand the world we live in and it demands a detail exam of a phenomenon. The objective of explanation of the phenomenon requires the knowledge of it existence or what causes it. In order to determine why help was not given to those who need is done by determining the event that happened in the prior to this event.. Explanation provides the event that existed prior to the condition.
How do you understand the term paradigm? What is meant by this term? Why is this term important to the study of research?
My understanding of the term paradigm is that it is a current viewpoint and process from which your mind analyzes information, it’s the way I see the world.
Within normal science, the paradigm is the set of exemplary experiments that are likely to be copied or emulated. The prevailing paradigm often represents a more specific way of viewing reality, or limitations on acceptable programs for future research, than the much more general scientific method (Kuhn, 2012). In the psychological realm, Handa, M.L. (1986) introduced the idea of "social paradigm" in the context of social sciences. He identified the basic components of a social paradigm. Like Kuhn, Handa addressed the issue of changing paradigm; the process popularly known as "paradigm shift". In this respect, he focused on social circumstances that precipitate such a shift and the effects of the shift on the social institutions, including the institution of education. This broad shift in the social arena, in turn, changes the way the individual perceives reality. In social science, the term is used to describe the set of experiences, beliefs and values that affect the way an individual perceives reality and responds to that perception. Social scientists have adopted the Kuhnian phrase "paradigm shift" to denote a change in how a given society goes about organizing and understanding reality. A “dominant paradigm” refers to the values, or system of thought, in a society that are most standard and widely held at a given time. Dominant paradigms are shaped both by the community’s cultural background and by the context of the historical moment (Kuhn, 2012).
• How does Kuhn’s description of paradigms apply to your discipline?
Kuhn defines a paradigm in two ways: first as the entire constellation of beliefs, values and techniques shared by a scientific community; and secondly as the procedures used to solve specific problems and take theories to their logical conclusion.
According to Guba (1990), paradigms can be characterized through their: ontology (What is reality?), epistemology (How do you know something?) and methodology (How do go about finding out?). Across disciplines (and within) there are varying views of what research is and how this relates to the kind of knowledge being developed. Paradigms guide how we make decisions and carry out research.
• Identify two different paradigms in your discipline. How do they differ?
One paradigm in the MHS is the Electronic Health Record (EHR). The Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes the value of secure, computerized patient records available on demand as a substantive tool for enhancing patient safety. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) have conducted studies and published recommendations about how electronic records contribute to patient safety. As a result of this study the MHS developed a program the Composite Health Care System (CHCS), the DoD's initial health record system has made the technological leap from paper to electronic...
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