A settlement is a temporary or permanent place where people live that are economically viable. A settlement may range in size from a small number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Hamlets, villages, towns, and cities are types of settlements. A settlement exists to perform certain function that is in fact the reason for their development. The function of a settlement can be identified by looking at its shape, size, site, and situation. Settlements are important in all facets of life, because it is through their development that man can explore the environment for his needs. They are the most visible sign that human culture has imposed on the natural world. Settlements form patterns, distributions, types and sizes and they have great tendency toward change with time. A settlement conventionally includes its constructed facilities such as roads, enclosures, field systems, boundary banks and ditches, ponds, parks and woods, wind and water mills, mosques and churches. There are different ways of classifying settlements. Settlements can be classified in the following ways: 1.Rural/urban classification
CONCEPT OF SETTLEMENT
The study of settlement is of great importance to human geography. Man cannot do but live and settle in a geographical area. He is a social animal thus, he cannot live in isolation and so has settlement made up of different group of houses. Over the years, settlements have gradually evolved from simple to more complex. As a man moves about, migrating from one spatial area to the other, more people begin to settle in various areas, populating these areas. Agricultural took place and thus we have different settlement patterns. The structure of an area can determine its pattern. The natural make-up and topographical area can determine the settlement pattern of the area. In areas with rivers, the likely pattern in such area is linear as the house are built along the river bank, the river serves as a source of irrigation for the people for their agricultural purpose. In desert areas, they usually have dispersed and on the island, we can find nucleated settlements. Settlements reflect and show us the activities of man and how man exploits the environment and surrounding land to meet in social needs. The religious activities of man can also influence the nature of the settlement. Man and his activities are the major determinants of the types of settlement. One to gradual and continuous evolvement of settlement, the structure of settlement have transformed from rural to urban and some areas still remain as rural areas. The rural and urban areas are interdependent on each other for various needs. The rural area supply agricultural products such as food, raw materials etc. and provide labour for the urban areas. The urban areas serve as market for the agricultural produce of the rural areas. They differ in activities, types of buildings and socio-cultural behavior. The concept of settlement can therefore not be undermined as it depicts to a great extent the social behavior of man and his dependent on his environment. Thus, settlement can be defined as; the settlement reflects the roles and functions play by man in the environment. This study on settlement will therefore take into consideration the types, pattern, and function, problems and practical examples of settlement. With the aim of laying emphasis on the importance of settlement to man and appreciating the gradual evolvement and change in the composition of settlement as a result of man’s activities.
TYPES OF SETTLEMENT
Settlements can broadly be divided into two types – Rural and Urban. Before discussing about the types of settlement, we should know the some basic differences between rural and urban areas in general. The major difference between rural and urban areas is in function. Rural areas have predominantly primary activities, whereas urban areas have domination of secondary and tertiary activities. Generally, the rural areas have low density of population than urban areas TYPES OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS
Before discussing types of rural settlements, let us have some idea about the word: types refers to a category of things having some common features. Geographers have suggested various schemes of classification of settlement found all over the world, these can broadly be grouped under four categories: 1.Compact/Clustered/Nucleated Settlement
2.Semi-Compact/ Semi-Clustered/Fragmented Settlement
Let us discuss these types one after the other along with some of the major patterns associated with each type. 1.Compact Settlements: As the name suggested, these settlements have closely built up areas. Therefore, in such settlements all the dwellings are concentrated in one central sites and these inhabited area is distinct and separated from the farms and pastures. These settlements are generally found in Asia. Such settlements generally range from a cluster of about thirty to hundreds of dwelling to different forms, size and functions. Very often these settlements have a definite pattern due to closely built area and intervening street patterns. As many as 11 patterns are identified we will list only 5 major patterns. These are: I.Linear Pattern
3.ompact Settlement: as the name suggests, the dwellings or houses are not well-knitted. 4.Such settlements are characterized by a small but compact nuclears around which hamlets 5.are dispersed. It covers more are than the compact settlements. These settlements are 6.found both in plains and plateaus depending upon the environmental conditions 7.prevailing in that area.
Such settlements are situated along streams in Minipar Mandla and Balaghet districts of Madhya Pradesh in Department of Human Resources Development University of India. Like, compact settlements, semi-compact settlements may also have different patterns. Some of the patterns are:
I.Checker board pattern
III.Fan shaped pattern.
8.Hamlet Settlements: these types of settlements, are fragmented into several small units. The main settlement does not have much influence on the other units. Very often the original site is not easily distinguishable and these hamlets are often spread over the area with intervening fields. This segregation is often influenced by social and ethnic factors. These settlements are generally found in West Bengal, Eastern Ultar Pradesh of India. 9.Dispersed Settlements: this is also known as isolated settlements. Here the settlement is characterized by units of small size which may consist of a single house to a small group of houses. It varies from two to seven huts. 10.Therefore, in this type, hamlets are scattered over a vast area and does not have any specific pattern. Such types of settlements are found in tribal areas of central part of India. Types Of Urban Settlement
Like Rural Settlements are classified on various bases. However, classification based on size and function are most common. Let us discuss them one after the other. Classification Based On Population Size
Class 1100,000 and above
Class 2 50,000 – 99,999
Class 320,000 – 49,999
Class 410,000 – 19,999
Class 55,000 – 9,999
Class 6less than 5,000
There is another classification of Urban Settlements. The classification is as follows: Town -Places which have less than one 1akh population.
City -Urban centers having population between one 1akh to 1 million Metropolitan Cities -Cities having population in between 1 million to 5 million. Mega Cities - Cities having more than 5million population.
FUNCTIONS OF SETTLEMENT
Function of a settlement is its economic purpose or is what people living in the settlement are doing economically or socially. Better still; the function of a settlement is its chief financial activity or purpose. Settlements which have the same function will have the same features. The function of a settlement can also be termed as what the inhabitants of the settlement did or do which is the main use of the settlement. The function of a settlement describes all the main activities that occur in it. Most settlements always start with one predominant function when first established but as they develop the functions these settlements perform may change or increase. Most settlements are now multi-functional, which means they perform a range of different functions, however some may be more important than others to a particular society. For example a tourist town may perform all sorts of functions, but its main ones are concentrated towards the tourists. The functions settlements perform can be grouped under a number of headings, such as: i.Residential
i.RESIDENTIAL: A major function of many settlements is to give people a place to live. In some places, this is the main function, as there are few services and no industry. These are known as dormitory or commuter towns. Another sort of residential function is one that concentrates on serving retired peoples. These places will have services but those needed particularly by the elders. We have the high-class residential zone; middle-class residential zone; and the low-class residential zone, depending on the quality of houses available in these zones. ii.RECREATIONAL: Some settlements are developed mainly for the specific reason of recreation. They serve as relaxation centers and are close to residential settlements. They are usually holiday resort. iii.RETAIL: settlements that serve the function of retail are commercial settlements where large cargoes of consumer goods are offloaded and uploaded. These settlements must have good transport routes and adequate storage facilities. iv.GOVERNMENTS: The government in all its levels develops a settlement to serve executive purposes. A government settlement will possess public buildings and institutions owed by the government. v.ENTERTAINMENT: Some places are set aside to perform certain entertainment functions; example of such settlements is Holly woods in America. These settlements may perform a lot of other minor function but the particular sport they are known for is the major function they perform. vi.INDUSTRIAL: Industrial land zones are often mixed with residential land uses. Light industries are situated in these zones. Some industries cannot be sited too close to residential area due to their waste product, large expanse of land (a community) is provided for industrial activities. These are known as industrial estates. Others are:
vii.Market Town- where farmers buy and sell goods. People shop in these towns and they are always surrounded by fertile lands. Watford was originally a market town, and although it still holds a regular market, it is now a striving multifunctional center. viii.Port- where goods are loaded and unloaded by ship. This was the original function of Port Harcourt and Apapa. Both are still very important ports, but their functions have increased and they are now multifunctional. ix.Industrial Town- where most people living there work in factories. For example, Somolu in Lagos state is a renowned printing town. x.Resort- a place where tourists visit to enjoy themselves. Jos Plateau a popular resort in Nigeria; it now has many functions and is a commuter settlement for Liverpool. xi.Defense Town- developed near castles, some surrounded by defensive walls. xii.Resource Town- developed largely as a result of natural resources being found nearby. Natural resources in the area enabled Sheffield to develop as an important center in the iron and steel industry. Although steel is still produced, is prominence has declined and Sheffield is a thriving multifunctional city. Based on their functions, human settlement is divided in to two major parts namely 1. Rural settlement 2. Urban settlement
FUNCTIONS OF RURAL SETTLEMENT
1.Agricultural produce come from the rural settlements: Due to the large amount of arable land in rural areas, agriculture is the main livelihood of the people, therefore most of the agricultural produce used in the rural and urban settlements comes from the rural settlements. Agricultural produce can be in different forms: (a)Food: Food is one of the basic human needs for survival. Even though there is a larger population concentration in the urban areas, they cannot produce enough food for themselves because of the population pressure on land and industrialization. Most of the foods consumed in the urban communities are produced in the rural areas. (b)Clothing: most of the clothes that is worn both in the urban and rural settlements are sourced from the rural resources. Dyes, wool, cotton, hides and skin, etc., are mostly found in large quantities in the rural settlements. (c)Raw materials: processed foods, clothing materials, drugs, cosmetics, household furniture, building materials and lots more, all require raw materials before they can be useful in their finished form. Their raw materials are sourced from the rural settlements. 2.They supply cheap labour to service the economy of the urban centers: in the rural settlements you find a huge amount of unskilled and semi-skilled workers that are needed in the urban settlements for the smooth running of the industries and other outfits in the cities. These classes of labourers are indispensable to the economy of any modern society. 3.They perform primary economic activities: the urban centers by virtue of their situations cannot perform primary economic activities, they can only perform the secondary and tertiary activities, yet the primary activities must be carried out before economic activities can continue. The rural settlements because of their situation are better placed to perform these activities. Primary economic activity is the process of extracting raw materials from their natural location (Earth). Primary activities include; farming, lumbering, hunting, fishing, etc. 4.They help to preserve cultural heritage: in the rural settlements there is little or no culture contact with alien culture so that the original culture of the people is preserved for a long time. This is not possible in the cities because different people from different cultures meet every day and consciously or unconsciously there is a culture diffusion and culture borrowing. For instance the native religion is not well practiced in the cities and most of the people speak English which causes them to forget their own language overtime. But in the rural communities material and non-material culture of the people are secured and are passed down from generation to generation through the process of socialization. 5.Due to the peaceful and quiet ambience of the rural settlements, people tend to go there as a kind of resort from the noise and rush of the city. A lot of people retire back to their villages to spend the later part of their lives. Most rural areas are always hygienic and healthy to live in.
FUNCTIONS OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS
1.Employment opportunities: The young men in the rural areas can always go to the cities with whatever skill they have and get a job. Due to industrialization a lot of jobs have been provided for both the urban and the rural labour force. There are miscellaneous jobs for unskilled labour and factory jobs for semi-skilled labour. A lot of job opportunities exist for skilled labour and self-employed entrepreneurs in the cities. 2.Education institutions: Rural areas may have primary and secondary schools but most of them do not have tertiary institutions. A lot of youths in the rural areas have to go to the urban centers to complete their education. For example; UI in Ibadan and UNILAG in Lagos. 3.Administrative functions: Administrative function is the most dominant function. Government agencies and establishments have their offices in the cities, e.g., Lagos and Abuja in Nigeria. 4.Health facilities: Primary health care may be available in the rural areas but secondary and advanced medical services are adequately provided for in the urban communities. Well-trained health workers are also available due to the existence of tertiary institutions where this people are trained, we have for instance UCH in Ibadan. At UCH there are a lot of medical specialists who attend to patients with ailments of all forms, and this hospital is assessable to everyone whether from the urban or rural districts. 5.Transportation and communication: Goods and services are provided to every nook and cranny of both the rural and urban settlements because good and extensive road networks in the urban centers link the whole society together. Also modern means of communication are mostly concentrated in the cities making it easier to provide goods and service to the right places at the right time no matter the distance between the consumers and the producers. 6.Commerce: Due to the large population concentration in the urban centers there is a large market for commerce in the urban settlements. There is a wide and unlimited range of need to meet in the urban settlements therefore any hardworking person can easily find his or her niche in the urban settlements. That is why most industries and institutions are situated In the urban centers in any country. As early settlements grew in size, each one tended to develop a specific function or functions. The function of a town relates to its economic and social development and refers to its main activities. There are problems in defining and determining a town's main function and often, due to a lack of data such as employment and/or income figures, subjective decisions have to be made. As settlements are very diverse, it helps to try to group together those with a similar function. Over the years, numerous attempts have been made to classify settlements based on function, but these tended to refer to places in industrialized countries and are no longer applicable to post-industrial societies. Rural settlements have traditionally been defined as places where most of the workforce are farmers or are engaged in other primary activities. But rural settlements change through time in function. Such changes are still going on in many areas partly because of government intervention and modernization. Distinction between rural and urban settlements widely varies among countries because the criteria they adopt vary. In Nigeria, a rural settlement is one whose population is less than 20,000 while as the population gets more than 20,000 the village becomes urban
PROBLEMS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
The condition of human settlements largely determines the quality of life, the improvement of which is a pre-requisite for the full satisfaction of basic needs such as employment, housing services, education and recreation. The problems of human settlements are not isolated from the social and economic development of countries and that they cannot be set apart from existing unjust international economic relations. The circumstances of life for vast number of people in human settlements are unacceptable, particularly in developing countries and that, unless positive and concrete action is taken at national and international levels to find and implement solutions, these conditions are likely to be further aggravated, as a result of: INEQUITABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH:
Reflected in the wide disparities in the wealth which now exist between countries and between human beings and which condemn millions of people to a life of poverty, without satisfying the basic requirements for food, education, health services, shelter, environmental hygiene, water and energy. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, ECOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DETERIORATION: Which are exemplified at the national and international levels by inequalities in living conditions, social segregation, racial discrimination, acute unemployment, illiteracy, disease and poverty, the breakdown of social relationships and traditional cultural values and the increasing degradation of life supporting resources of air, water and land. WOLRD POPULATION GROWTH:
Trends which indicate that numbers of mankind in the next 25 years would double, thereby more than doubling the need for food, shelter and all other requirements for life and human dignity which are at the present inadequately met. UNCONTROLLED URBANIZATION:
And consequent conditions of overcrowding, pollution, deterioration and psychological tensions in metropolitan regions.
Which compels a large majority of mankind to live at the lowest standards of living and contribute to uncontrolled urban growth.
Exemplified by small scattered settlements and isolated homesteads which inhibit the provision of infrastructure and services particularly those relating to water, health and education.
Politically, racially and economically motivated, relocation and expulsion of people from their national homeland.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE CITIES:
The impact of climate change poses a greater threat to human settlement. Those parts of the population who already suffer from poor health conditions, unemployment or social expulsion are rendered more vulnerable to the effects of climate change and tend to migrate to cities within or outside their countries. NATURAL DISASTERS:
Droughts, diseases epidemic, war, flood, famine, etc. poses a great threat to human settlements.
Major problem of rural settlements are:
I.Rural settlements in the developing countries have poor infrastructure facilities. II. Supply of water to rural settlements in developing countries is not adequate. People in Villages, particularly in mountainous and arid areas have to walk long distances to fetch drinking water. III.Water borne diseases such as cholera and jaundice are common problem because of lack of safe drinking water and unhygienic conditions. IV.Villages are adversely affected by the conditions of drought and flood. This in turn affects the crop cultivation. V.The absence of toilet and garbage disposal facilities cause health related problems. VI. The houses made up of mud, wood and thatch get damaged during heavy rains and floods. VII. Most houses have no proper ventilation.
VIII.Untarred roads and lack of modern communication network causes difficulties in providing emergency services during floods. IX.It is also difficult to provide adequate health and educational infrastructure for large rural population. The problem is particularly serious where houses are scattered over a large area.
Major problems of urban areas in developing countries are: 1. Economic Problems :
I.Over urbanization or the uncontrolled urbanization in developing countries is due to large-scale in-migration of rural people. II. Decreasing employment opportunities in the rural as well as smaller urban areas has caused large scale rural to urban migration. III. The huge migrant population in urban areas creates stagnation and generates a pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour force. IV.Urban areas suffer from shortage of housing, transport, health and civic amenities. V.A large number of people live in substandard housing i.e. Slums and squatter settlements or on the streets. VI.Illegal settlements called squatter settlement are growing as fast as the city. 2. Socio-cultural Problems : Cities in the developing countries suffer from several social ills. Some of these problems are: I.Inadequate social infrastructure and basic facilities is due to lack of financial resources and over-population in the cities. II.The available educational and health facilities remain beyond the reach of the urban poor. III.Cities suffer from poor health conditions.
IV.Lack of employment and education tends to aggravate the crime rates. V.Male selective migration to the urban areas distorts the sex ratio in these cities. 3. Environmental Problems :
I.The large urban population in developing countries uses and disposes off a huge quantity of water and all types of waste materials. II.Many cities of the developing countries do not provide the minimum required quantity of drinkable water and water for domestic and industrial uses. III.Improper sewerage system creates unhealthy conditions. IV.Massive use of traditional fuel in the domestic as well as the industrial sector severely pollutes the air. V.The domestic and industrial wastes are either let into the general sewerages or dumped without treatment at unspecified locations.
Lagos As A Case Study
Ethnic composition, Languages, Culture and the Arts: The indigenous peoples of Lagos State are the Yoruba subgroups of the Aworis in Ikeja, the Eguns in Badagry area, the ljebus in Ikorodu and Epe, while Lagos Island consists of an admixture of Benin and Eko Aworis as well as repatriated Yorubas and other immigrants. However, the state in its modern form is a socio-cultural melting point which has attracted a cross section of Nigerians from all over the federation as well as non-Nigerians from other African countries and the rest of the world. Nevertheless, Lagos state has its own distinctive cultural characteristics which have been nurtured all along by its indigenous peoples. The arts and craft of the state include pottery, sculpture, mat weaving, basket weaving, hair plaiting, and raffia works. The cultures of the peoples are also reflected in certain types of masquerades which have particular times of the year for their festivals and some of which originate from ancient religious practices. The major festivals include those of the Adamu Orisha (Eyo masquerades) of Lagos Island, Egungun, Kori and Osun lyaAlaro festivals at Ikeja, Eluku Festival at Ikorodu, Ebi Festival and Okoso Festival (Boat regatta) of Epe, the Sangbeto Masquerades of Badagry and a host of others. The Lagos State Council for Arts and Culture was established in 1973 for the promotion of the State's cultural heritage. Population, Structure and Distribution: Estimates by the United Nations and the Lagos State Regional Master Plan put the state's current population at about 10.6 million inhabitants. However, the 1991 census of Nigeria puts the population of Lagos State at 5,685,781 or 6.42 per cent of the national total. The figure still makes Lagos State the most populous state in the Federation. With its area of 3,577 sq. km. the smallest in the country, the state's population density of 1,590 persons per sq. km. is therefore high. The density value for built up metropolitan Lagos, estimated at 20,000 persons per sq. km. is even higher still. A 1988 estimate indicates that the population of Lagos State had been growing at an annual rate of 8 percent in the urban areas and 3 percent in the rural areas. Obviously, the urban growth rate has been enhanced by in migration. However, in view of the movement of the Federal Government to Abuja in December 1991, the growth rates are likely to have begun to decrease, or to increase at a decreasing rate. The most populous LGA in the state is Ojo with 17.8 percent of the 1991 population, closely followed by Mushin together with Oshodi/lsolo (17.4 percent) and Lagos Mainland/Surulere (15.3 percent). While the least populated LGA is IbejuLekki (0.4. per cent); the other LGAs occupy various positions in between. Urbanization and Human Settlement System: The main urban centers in the State are Badagry, Epe, Ikorodu, Ikeja and Lagos. The urbanization process that has taken place in Lagos has been of such significance in the State and in Nigeria as a whole that it should receive special attention. Although not European in origin, Lagos represents most spectacularly one of that class of Nigerian cities whose growth and development have been significantly shaped by European influences. Starting from a small settlement made by the Awori (a subgroup of the Yorubas), first at EbuteMetta and later (for defence reasons) at iddo, probably in the early part of the 17th century, the settlement of Lagos existed rather quietly up to the end of the 18th century. From 1821 onwards, it became an important slave port on the West African coast. Important turning points in the subsequent growth of Lagos include the bombardment of the city by the British in 1851, with the purpose of ousting the slave trade inclined King Kosoko and restoring Akintoye as King of Lagos; the resulting abandonment of the city by the civilian population and the slow growth thereafter; the formal cession of Lagos as a Colony to Britain in 1861; and the sub sequent establishment of regular government and administration of justice. Then followed piecemeal addition of hinterland areas to ensure political and commercial stability; the subsequent growth in commerce and the development of communications culminating in the founding of the Lagos Chambers of Commerce in 1897. The construction of the railway started in 1895 and harbour improvement followed (19081917). The volume of trade has continued to grow over the years. Subsequently, various public programmes relating to industrial development, swamp reclamation and mosquito campaigns, pipe borne water, transportation facilities, commercial activities and the city's increasing functions as the capital of the Federation accelerated the growth of Lagos into the greatest single concentration of skills and disposable income in the country. By 1963, the city (the Municipality of Lagos), made up of such components as Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Ikoyi and Victoria Island, Apapa and other areas had an official population figure of 665,246. However, the geographic city beyond the boundaries of the Municipality was much larger. The spectacular road development works since the 1970s (the construction of the Eko Bridge, the reconstruction of Ikorodu Road into a 10lane dual carriage way, the construction of the Third Mainland Bridge, the Apapa Oworonshoki Expressway, the Lagos Badagry Expressway, the Abeokuta Expressway, the Victoria Island Epe road as well as the interconnecting roads that link them into elabo rate circumferential route ways and circulation paths have been both responses to and catalysts of the explosive growth of metropolitan Lagos. The process of urbanization still continues in Lagos and with it comes various problems concerning administration, land acquisition, housing and rents, sanitation, transportation, water supply and crime. These issues are brought to the attention of the public continually through the news media, and they remain endemic subjects of governmental policy and programmes. Table 24.2 shows projected population for the metropolis and the State from 1987 to 2000. The settlement system in Lagos state is obviously dominated by metropolitan Lagos which incorporates not less than 16 of the 20 local government areas (LGAs): Agege, Ajeromilfelodun, AmuwoOdofin, Alimosho, Apapa, EtiOsa, lfako ljaye, Ikeja, Kosofe, Lagos Island, Lagos Mainland, Mushin, Oshodilsolo, Somolu, Surulere and part of Ojo. In each of the four remaining LGAs, there is typically a focal town surrounded by numerous lower order settlements and village communities. In Badagry LGA, the focal town is the ancient settlement of Badagry which was a major slave out post in precolonial times and is reputed as being the first place in Nigeria where Christianity was preached in 1842. There are about 120 other com munities and villages in the LGA including Ajara, Topo, Panko, Akarakumo, Aseri, Egun and others. The situation in Epe LGA is similar, the focal town being Epe. The other settlements are about 311, including Agbowalkosi, ltoiki, Ejirin, Onisawasawa, Ubuja, lpabodo and numerous others. IbejuLekki LGA has as the main town, not the local government headquarters which is Akodo but a more developed small town, Ibeju. Distributed irregularly around and between these two are about 153 other village communities, including Lekki, Magbon Alade and others. Finally, Ikorodu LGA has as its focal town the local government headquarters, Ikorodu, which is a veritable commercial city in its own right. Being the location of the transmitters for the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria, the Voice of Nigeria and Lagos State Broadcasting Corporation (Radio and Television), it is an important communication centre as well as a major gate way to the country's hinterland. There are about 260 other settlements in the LGA, including lgbogbo, Imota, Maya, Baiyeku, ljede, Majidun, Ajegunie, Agbede, Aguru, Odugunyan and others. These four LGAs Badagry, Epe, IbejuLekki and Ikorodu contain virtually the totality of rural areas in Lagos State.
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Kastina As A Case Study
Ethnic Composition, Languages, Culture and Arts: Katsina is a predominantly Hausa Fulani state. Most people speak only Hausa. A great majority of the people are settled cultivators and traders. But there is a considerable number of nomadic cattle Fulanis, whose males rear livestock, while the females hawk locally prepared fermented milk in towns and villages. The 16th Century Gobarau Minaret, Kastina
The 16th Century Gobarau Minaret, Kastina
A sizeable number of migrants from southern Nigeria, especially the Yorubas and lgbos, are found and they dwell mostly in towns. There are many traditional cottage/craft industries which produce a wide range of highly qualitative, beautiful and aesthetically important products. On sallah days, the palaces of Katsina and Daura attract both local and foreign tourists who come to watch the colourful durbar (Mortimore, 1989) Population Structure and Distribution: According to the 1999 projection of 1991 population census figures, Katsina state has a population of 4,536,261 persons ( Table 20.2). Out of this figure, about 49 per cent are males and 51 percent females. On the average, there are 189 persons living per square km in terms of the density of population. Seasonal migration takes place, especially of able bodied males in the dry season to the southern part of the state in search of part time jobs. This is known as cinrani. In drought years, many more people tend to migrate southwards from the northern part of the state on either temporary or permanent basis to avoid the consequence of the drought menace. Indeed, the southern part of the state receives migrants from both within and outside the state. Patterns of Human Settlement: The state has no problem of urban primacy. The urban, semi urban locations and nodal villages which more or less approximate to the present headquarters of the thirty-four local government areas are evenly spread and are surrounded by other rural settlements. These two types of settlements form close knit economic, cultural, administrative and historical inter-relationships. Furthermore, each has a fairly long historical link with Katsina city which has subsequently served as the headquarters of Katsina Emirate, then of Katsina Province, and now the capital of Katsina state.
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