CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
The sun is the largest source of energy. The amount of solar energy received from sun by the earth is staggering 5,000 times greater than the combined energy from all other sources. Out of this energy incident on the earth, 77% is lost to space by reflection and reradiation at longer wave lengths 23% is used as a motive force for winds, waves, currents and evaporation process. Only 0.02% of total radiation is stored in plants by conversion process of photosynthesis. Scientists and technologists all over the world are to harness solar energy. Some are attempting to obtain high-grade cost eg; very high temperatures can be achieved by using some concentrators, but the tracking equipment with it has to be extremely accurate and it is naturally very expensive. The earth received nearly 4,000 trillion KWh of energy every day in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun. This is about a 100 times the total energy consumption of the world in a year( Datta, 1982)
Solar energy, experienced by us as heat and light, can be used in a number of ways for many applications. The thermal route use the heat for water heating, space heating, cooling, drying, water purification, cooling and power generation. The photovoltaic route converts the light in solar energy into electricity, which can then be used for a number of purposes such as lighting, pumping, communications, and signaling. Energy from the sun has many features, which make it an attractive energy option: its global distribution, pollution free nature, and the virtually inexhaustible supply, the daily and seasonal variations in the energy available may require suitable storage or a combination with other energy sources.
Solar Water Heaters are one of the best-known applications for the direct use of the sun's energy. The technology is very popular in the country in domestic and commercial sector. Also its use is increasing in industrial sector as well, due to which...
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