Computer Organisation

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UNIT - I BASIC STRUCTURE OF COMPUTERS FUNCTIONAL UNITS
A computer consists of five functionally independent main parts. They are, ➢ Input ➢ Memory ➢ Arithmetic and logic ➢ Output ➢ Control unit Basic functional units of a computer [pic]

The operation of a computer can be summarized as follows
The computer accepts programs and the data through an input and stores them in the memory.The stored data are processed by the arithmetic and logic unit under program control.The processed data is delivered through the output unit.All above activities are directed by control unit.The information is stored either in the computer’s memory for later use or immediately used by ALU to perform the desired operations.Instructions are explicit commands that ▪ Manage the transfer of information within a computer as well as between the computer and its I/O devices. ▪ Specify the arithmetic and logic operations to be performed. To execute a program, the processor fetches the instructions one after another, and performs the desired operations. The processor accepts only the machine language program. To get the machine language program, Complier is used.
Note: Compiler is software (Translator) which converts the High Level Language program (source program) into Machine language program (object program)
1.Input unit: The computer accepts coded information through input unit. The input can be from human operators, electromechanical devices such as keyboards or from other computer over communication lines.

Examples of input devices are Keyboard, joysticks, trackballs and mouse are used as graphic input devices in conjunction with display. Microphones can be used to capture audio input which is then sampled and converted into digital code for storage and processing. Keyboard • It is a common input device. • Whenever

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