# Computer and Layer

Topics: Computer, Binary numeral system, OSI model Pages: 11 (2389 words) Published: November 23, 2013
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HISTORICAL BACKGROUND and COMPUTER SYSTEM COMPONENTS

What is the difference between computer organization and computer architecture?

Computer organization helps us answer the question How does a computer work? Organization deals all physical aspects of computer systems. Computer architecture helps us answer the question How do I design a computer? Architecture focuses on the structure and behavior of the computer system and refers to the logical and abstract aspects of system implementation as seen by the programmer.

What is an ISA?

An ISA (Instruction Set Architecture) is the agreed upon interface which runs between the software that runs on the machine and the hardware that executes it

What is the importance of the Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software?

Any task that can be done by software which can also be done using hardware, and any operation performed directly by hardware can be done using software

Name the three basic components of every computer.

1. processor – interpret and execute programs
2. memory- store data and programs
3. mechanism- transfer data to and from outside world

To what power of 10 does the prefix giga- refer? What is the (approximate) equivalent power of 2?

Giga (G) Power of 10 is 1 billion = 10 to the power of 9
Approx Equivalent = 2 to the power of 30

To what power of 10 does the prefix micro- refer? What is the (approximate) equivalent power of 2?

Micro (mew ) Power of 10 is 1 millionth = 10 to the power of -6 Approx Equivalent = 2 to the power of -20

What unit is typically used to measure the speed of a computer clock?

The unit of measurement used to measure a computer’s clock speed is called a hertz (Hz). This denotes one cycle per second and measures a clock’s speed. In computer clock speed, one hertz is equivalent to one tick per second. A computer’s clock speed is normally measured in MHz (megahertz) or GHz (gigahertz). A megahertz is equal to one million ticks per second while one gigahertz is equal to one billion ticks per second. A computer with the clock speed of 600MHz runs at 600,000,000 cycles per second, while a 2.0GHz computer runs at 2,000,000,000 cycles per second.

Name two types of computer memory.

The two types of memory are synchronous (synchronize itself with a microprocessor's bus ) and nonsynchronous

What is the mission of the IEEE?

IEEE's core purpose is to foster technological innovation and excellence for the benefit of humanity.

What is the full name of the organization that uses the initials ISO? Is ISO an acronym?

ISO is not an acronym.
ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization. The term ISO is based on the Greek word 'isos' meaning equal and was adopted to ensure that it would be applicable to all languages. ISO regulates industrial, computer and commercial standards. ISO has defined a number of important computer standards, the most significant of which is OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) with standards for designing computer networks.

ANSI is the acronym used by which organization?

ANSI stands for American National Standards Institute which is used to represent the US

What is the name of the Swiss organization that devotes itself to matters concerning  telephony, telecommunications, and data communications?

The International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

Who is known as the father of computing and why?

Charles Babbage
His plans to build the analytical machine included many of the components used in modern computers: processing unit (mill), a memory (store), and input/output. Also, conditional branching.

What was the significance of the punch card?

It was the type of input programming. Hollerith went on to use it for census data (and also went on to found IBM). His 80 column punch card was a staple of automated data processing for 50 years.

Name two driving factors in the development of computers.
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