Comprehensive assignment

Topics: Nervous system, Muscle, Cranial nerves Pages: 8 (2427 words) Published: April 22, 2014
1. (5 pts) Describe the metabolic process providing your energy while you were walking (at an easy pace) before the bee stung you. Include which molecules are being consumed.

The metabolic process providing my energy while I was walking at an easy pace is aerobic metabolism. During aerobic metabolism, mitochondria absorb from the surrounding cytoplasm these molecules: ADP, phosphate ions, O2, and organic substances like pyruvate. These molecules go through the citric acid cycle. The electron transport chain is also involved to create ATP. For each molecule of pyruvate that goes into the citric acid cycle, the cell gains 17 ATP molecules. Glycogen reserves can also be used and converted to glucose. Glycolysis breaks down glucose molecules to create more pyruvate. However, if not enough glycogen is available, the cell can also use amino acids and lipids to do this. This is a very efficient process but also only contributes a fraction of the ATP during aerobic metabolism. At moderate levels of activity, most of the energy during aerobic metabolism comes from work done by the mitochondria. The muscles involved during this process need all of the energy produced as ATP, and there is no extra left over in this particular metabolic process if muscle activity increases ("Muscle Tissue" P. 306-7).

2. (8 pts) Trace the sound of the bee from your outer ear to perception. (Include all focusing, conduction, transduction, transmission and perception processes and structures).

Sound vibrations from the buzzing bee vibrate the air molecules as pressure waves around my ear and enter the auricle which is cone-shaped in order to direct these sound waves into the ear via the external acoustic meatus. The sound waves reach the tympanic membrane through the external acoustic meatus and cause it to vibrate. When the tympanic membrane moves, it causes the auditory ossicles to move. The auditory ossicles are made up of the malleus, incus, and stapes. These ossicles are important because they amplify the sound. The stapes then transfers this movement to the oval window and the pressure waves move through the perilymph of the scala vestibuli. These waves then disturb the basilar membrane as they move toward the round window of the scala tympani. This causes vibrations of hair cells against the tectorial membrane. The information about where the sound originated and about how strong the pressure waves are is interpreted by the central nervous system over the cochlear branch of cranial nerve VIII ("The Special Senses" P. 584-5).

3. (4 pts) Turn your head to the right. (Create a table that describes which muscles move which bones across which joints under the control of which nerves).

Bends head towards shoulder and turns face to opposite sideSternocleidomastoidClavicular head attaches to sternal end of clavicle; sternal head attaches to manubriumMastoid region of skull and lateral portion of superior nuchal lineAccessory Nerve XI; Cervical Spinal Nerves (C2-C3) Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that sideSplenius (Splenius capitis, splenius cervicis)Spinous processes and ligaments connecting inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebraeMastoid process, occipital bone of skull, and superior cervical vertebraeCervical Spinal Nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that sideLongissimus capitis Transverse process of inferior cervical and superior thoracic vertebraeMastoid process of temporal boneCervical and thoracic spinal nerves Rotates and laterally flexes neck to that sideLongissimus cervicisTransverse process of superior thoracic vertebraeTransverse processes of middle and superior cervical vertebraeCervical and thoracic spinal nerves Extends vertebral column and rotates toward opposite sideSemispinalis cervicisTransverse processes of T1-T5 or T6Spinous processes of C2-C5Cervical spinal nerves Rotates head to that sideLongus...

Cited: “Drugs and Medications – Epipen im.” WebMD. Last Revised: 2013. First published by WebMD,
Cummings, 2012.
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