Components of Pharmacology

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Components of Pharmacology The main components of pharmacology in substance use disorders include understanding how the methods of administration and routes of absorption affect the high in individuals. There is undeniably a chemical side to addiction. If a person consumes a substance, it can have an effect on the brain (Clinton, 2009). Pharmacology is simply the study of how the body reacts to medicines and how those medicines affect the body (National Institute of Health [NIH], 2011).
Methods of Administration One component of pharmacology is to classify drugs through methods of administration. Stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens can enter the body through three primary methods of administration, which are oral, inhalation or injection (NIH, 2011). Orally taken drugs mostly enter the body in the form of tablets, capsules or liquids. Thus, pills or alcohol have slower response time than non-enteral methods because of variables like absorption and distribution (Doweiko, 2015). Drugs such as nicotine and marijuana are administered through inhalation. Inhalation delivers the tobacco product to the brain within eight seconds and causes almost immediate changes in the brain and body (Clinton & Scalise, 2013). Parenteral method of drug administration involves injecting a compound directly into the body through subcutaneous, intra-muscular, or intravenous methods (Doweiko, 2015). Injecting drugs like heroin into a vein increase its addictive potential because it enters the brain within seconds, producing a powerful rush of pleasure (Volkow, 2010). Each method of administration affects the absorption and high.
Absorption
The routes of absorption are another component of pharmacology that varies depending on method of administration. A substance must first be absorbed into the body to obtain any effect (Doweiko, 2015). The goal is to reach the bloodstream, which is the circulatory system. All drug molecules must pass through cells walls into blood



References: Clinton, T. (Producer). (2009). Presentation: Models of addiction [Video file]. Available from www.AACC.net Clinton, T., & Scalise, E. (2013). The Quick-reference guide to addictions and recovery counseling: 40 topics, spiritual insights, and easy-to-use action steps. Grand Rapids. MI: Baker Books. Doweiko, H. E. (2015). Concepts of chemical dependency. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning. National Institute of Health. (2011). Chapter 1: ABCs of pharmacology. NIH, National Institute of General Medical Science. Retrieved from http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign/chapter1.html Volkow, N. D. (2010). Drugs, brains, and behavior—the science of addiction. National Institute on Drug Addiction. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/sciofaddiction.pdf

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