Components Of Neuron Communication

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Neurons are cells used to perceive the outside environment, the internal environment within themselves, to formulate behavioral response to those signals, and to send that information to other neurons, muscles, or glands. All information comes into a neuron through the dendrite, flows through the neuron and then leaves to go to the next neuron through the axon. Neuron communication does not rely on a single entity but entrusts several different processes that involve the contribution of neuron structure, electrical and chemical synapse, as well as neurotransmitters.
Nerve cells are the basic functioning component in the nervous system. Every part of the system is comprised of neurons that collect and distribute information to make the body function. All neurons consist of four main components; a soma, dendrites, an axon and its terminals. The soma is a cell
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This intercellular signaling allows neurons to form complex interconnected circuits, allowing the nervous system to moderate other systems within the body. When an action potential of a pre-synaptic neuron reaches the axon terminal, voltage-gated calcium channels are open. This allows calcium ions to enter the terminal. The calcium instigates vesicles containing neurotransmitters to bind with the cell membrane, releasing their contents into a space between the cells, called a synaptic cleft. After the neurotransmitters diffuse across the cleft, they activate receptors on the post-synaptic cell, which allow the neuron to receive the signal. In contrast to chemical synapses, the postsynaptic potential in electrical synapses is not caused by the opening of ion channels by chemical transmitters, but by direct electrical coupling of the neurons. Electrical synapses are therefore faster and more reliable than chemical

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