Complex Permanent Tissue

Topics: Plant anatomy, Phloem, Vascular plant Pages: 2 (549 words) Published: September 11, 2011
Complex permanent tissue
A complex permanent tissue may be classified as a group of more than one type of tissue having a common origin and working together as a unit to perform a function. These tissues are concerned with transportation of water, mineral, nutrients and organic substances. The important complex tissues in vascular plants are xylem, phloem. Complex permanent tissue is heterogeneous tissue which is formed of two or more than two types of mature cells of common origin which coordinate their activities to form a specific function. Conducting tissues of plants are complex permanent tissues. They are of two types, xylem and phloem.Xylem Xylem is a chief, conducting tissue of vascular plants. It is responsible for conduction of water and mineral ions.Xylem is a very important plant tissue as it is part of the ‘plumbing’ of a plant. It carries water and dissolved substances throughout and consists of a combination of parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, tracheids and ray cells. Long tubes made up of individual cells are the vessels, while vessel members are open at each end. Internally, there may be bars of wall material extending across the open space. These cells are joined end to end to form long tubes. Vessel members and tracheids are dead at maturity. The pit pairs allow water to pass from cell to cell. While most conduction in the xylem is up and down, there is some side-to-side or lateral conduction via rays. Rays are horizontal rows of long-living parenchyma cells that arise out of the vascular cambium. In trees, and other woody plants, ray will radiate out from the center of stems and roots and in cross-section will look like the spokes of a wheel.


Phloem is an equally important plant tissue as it also is part of the ‘plumbing’ of a plant. Primarily, phloem carries dissolved food substances throughout the plant. This conduction system is composed of sieve-tube member and companion cells, that are without secondary walls. The parent...
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