Possible Causes of Anaemia – severe blood loss, failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, genetic inability of red blood cells to carry oxygen adequately, destruction of red blood cells by the body or foreign substances, dietary (problems with child growth).
Common types of Anaemia – Iron deficiency – lack of iron which is the main constitute of Hb, pernicious – lack of intrinsic factor necessary to absorb Vitamin B12, others (sickle cell – presence of varying proportions of Hb) (bean like shape)
Presenting problems of Anaemia – pallor, susceptibility to fatigue/lethargy, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, fainting, lack of concentration, loss of appetite, rapid pulse, bruising, bleeding, dysphagia, sore mouth, oedema of ankles, increased susceptibility to infection, palpitations, angina in elderly, delayed healing, sensitivity to cold, cheilosis (dry scaling of the lips and angles of the mouth caused by riboflavin deficiency).
Specific nursing Actions for Anaemic patients – briefly review relevant diagnostic assessment, explain the condition, relating it to the cause of the patient’s problem eg. Fatigue, assist and support the patient during diagnostic procedures, implement measures to increase oxygen to cell by positioning to promote ventilation, encourage periods of rest to minimise over activity, avoid overheating, encourage to provide a well balanced diet with necessary supplements for the type of anaemia, iron plus foods high in vitamin C to enhance absorption, high B12 foods, folic acid and Vitamin B12 supplements, high fibre to counteract iron induced constipation, oral care according to appetite, monitor vital signs for blood transfusion, instruct patient to sit or lie down when dizzy, assist with initial ambulation, frequent turnings and repositioning to prevent skin break down, observe, record