Complex Interdependence (Neo Liberalism)

Satisfactory Essays
Complex Interdependence

(Neo Liberalism)

The theory of Complex Interdependence got birth as a reaction to Realism (Assumptions of realism were ═►State is the dominant actor ═►State can use force ═►Security or military objectives are dominant to Economic objectives). Complex Interdependence had its assumptions which pointed out that ═►state is not a dominant actor but different communities & races are ═► Force is ineffective but dialogue is effective ═► no hierarchy of clear objectives.

COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE: A critical response to realism.

FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE
1) Multiple channels connect societies OR Societies are interconnected in many ways. Not just leaders and militaries, as realism suggests :
a) Interstate (═►Formal foreign office arrangement ═►informal ties between Govt Elites)
b) Trans Governmental (═►informal ties between non government elites)
c) Trans National (═►International banks, multi national companies, corporations, etc).
2) Agenda without hierarchy of clear objectives OR States interact over many kinds of issues. War and security isn’t the only issue Economics, environmental issues, etc., are also addressed.
a) No clear hierarchy.
b) Difficult to differentiate between domestic and foreign issues.
c) Issues are considered at different levels.
3) Military Force will not be used against the nations in the same regions OR Military force is not central to inter-state relations (Interdependence is mostly applicable on Economic objectives or Ecological / environment Issues). 4) International organizations are the center of global politics They set agendas (e.g., trade, environmental issues) Within international organizations, states form coalitions and push for their interests
All states have an equal vote in most IOs.
Result: world politics is a lot like national politics.
Example: WTO policy. POLITICAL PROCESS OF

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Aggression: Use of force or imminent threat of force against the political sovereignty or territorial integrity of another state is a criminal act of aggression, and only such aggression can justify military action.…

    • 2398 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Essay topic

    • 438 Words
    • 2 Pages

    The attitude or policy of a nation that does not take part directly or indirectly in a war between other nations.…

    • 438 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The agenda will depend on the problem and the parties recognizing the problem. Once special interests groups, the media, and political parties start responding to an issue then the agenda is set for what needs to be dealt with.…

    • 372 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    The Meaning of Security

    • 994 Words
    • 4 Pages

    In the Article “Redefining Security”, Richard H. Ullman argues that it would be much more beneficial in the long run, if governments were to put more focus on non-military issues, rather than military issues. He states that defining national security merely (or even primarily) in military terms conveys a profoundly false image of reality (Ullman 1983, 129). Ullman states that, a significant disadvantage when a government’s main focus is on the military threats and they disregard non-military threats is that the total security of a nation gets reduced (Ullman 1983, 129). He argues in his article that non-military threats should be given greater attention. Ullman also goes on to state that when a nation only focuses on making their military strong, this act causes pervasive militarization, which eventually causes global insecurity between nations (Ullman 1983, 129).…

    • 994 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Just War

    • 634 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Force should be used when there are legitimate reasons for using it, and when it is the last resort for the government, who is responsible for civic peace. Elshtain uses Augustine to discuss justice and war. A paradox between war and peace is introduced, Elshtain uses an Augustine quote to discuss the similarity of two words that are complete polar opposites, “Peace and war had a contest in cruelty, and peace won the prize.” In history, there are many instances where evil and horrible things are done in the name of ‘peace’. Elshtain continues with the early Christian beliefs that under Jesus’ teaches forbid force in anyway, even under authority. Later, it transforms to the necessity of force to protect others. This leads to the four qualifications that Elshtain wrote to justify a war, the first is that the war must be publicly declared by a legitimate jurisdiction. The second criteria is that an unjust violence must have occurred against the government’s own people or a defenseless group. Third, the war has to be start with the proper motives. Finally, all other alternatives must be exhausted before leading to war. In the end, Elshtain includes a final criteria that must be met for a war to be ‘just’, the possibility of actually winning the conflict. If there is no chance of succeeding, the conflict should not be…

    • 634 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Bdq Essay

    • 1167 Words
    • 5 Pages

    In its last analysis the proposition is force to destroy force, conflict to prevent conflict, militarism to destroy militarism, war to prevent war. In its last analysis it must be that if it has any sanction behind its judgment at all. There is where the difficulty lies. . . .…

    • 1167 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Just War Theory

    • 815 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Jus a bellum, the right to go to war, explicitly describes how a nation-state should conduct itself before preparing for war. There are seven sub-categories within Jus a bellum: Just Cause, Comparative Justice, Competent Authority, Right Intention, Profitability of Success, Last Resort, and Proportionality. Just Cause is explained as needing to have a reason to go to war. Not just for recapturing material possessions, but if lives are in danger. Comparative Justice is described, as the suffering and injustice on one side within a war must outweigh the suffering and injustice on the opposite side. Competent Authority must be in order within a war. Nation-states that start war must only start it if the authorities within the nation-state are focused on justice. Right Intention is defined as; force may be only used for a just cause correcting a suffered wrong. Gaining or maintaining economies by a nation-state is not considered just. Profitability of Success indicates that arms are not to be used where unbalanced measures are pertinent to be successful. The Last Resort category is presented as; force in war may only be used if peaceful alternatives have been completely depleted. The final category, Proportionality, is the foreseen benefits of starting war must be proportionate to its expected wrongs.…

    • 815 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Nations pursue national interest according to their agenda. A nation’s agenda needs to be promoted to be accomplished, however, depending on the plan, it can provoke conflict. When this conflict is unnecessary to the nation or it conflicts with other nations, that’s when the plan should no longer be perused and other options should be explored.…

    • 288 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Global Cities

    • 334 Words
    • 2 Pages

    The network society goes further than the information society that is often proclaimed. Castells argues that it is not purely the technology that defines modern societies, but also cultural, economic and political factors that make up the network society. Influences such as religion, cultural upbringing, political organizations, and social status all shape the network society. Societies are shaped by these factors in many ways. These influences can either raise or hinder these societies. For van Dijk, information forms the substance of contemporary society, while networks shape the organizational forms and (infra)structures of this society.[citation needed]…

    • 334 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    The Centre should have the powers to deploy its armed forces, even without the consent of the states. However, it is desirable that the states should be consulted.…

    • 1391 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    HIS 105 Assignment 2

    • 474 Words
    • 2 Pages

    After the Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States had become the dominant force in international relations. Some have argued that the United States’ military functions as the world’s “police.”…

    • 474 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Better Essays

    The Monroe Doctrine

    • 1236 Words
    • 1 Page

    states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring the…

    • 1236 Words
    • 1 Page
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Public Policy Process

    • 576 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Because there are numerous issues, they have to be prioritized on need of importance. This prioritization can usually be influenced by interest groups, political parties, the media, and other branches of government through lobbying. Agendas are also influenced by outside issues such as war, natural disasters, or tragic accidents in order to help victims using quick relief efforts. Usually the next step in the process is to formulate viable options.…

    • 576 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Midterm Review Outline

    • 1996 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Diplomacy is bargaining - Diplomacy seeks outcomes that are better for both parties than some of the alternatives – each somewhat controls what the other wants and can get more by compromise than fighting. With enough military force a country might not need to bargain – “enough” depends on what the opponent has.…

    • 1996 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    H106 Notes, Clausewitz

    • 500 Words
    • 2 Pages

    When whole communities go to war—whole peoples, and especially civilized peoples—the reason always lies in some political situation, and the occasion is always due to some political object. War, therefore, is an act of policy (On War, pp. 86 – 87). Force—that is, physical force, for moral force has no existence save as expressed in the state and the law—is thus the means of war; to impose our will on the enemy is its object. To secure that object we must render the enemy powerless; and that, in theory, is the true aim of warfare (On War, p. 75).…

    • 500 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays