The theory of Complex Interdependence got birth as a reaction to Realism (Assumptions of realism were ═►State is the dominant actor ═►State can use force ═►Security or military objectives are dominant to Economic objectives). Complex Interdependence had its assumptions which pointed out that ═►state is not a dominant actor but different communities & races are ═► Force is ineffective but dialogue is effective ═► no hierarchy of clear objectives.
COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE: A critical response to realism.
FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEX INTERDEPENDENCE
1) Multiple channels connect societies OR Societies are interconnected in many ways. Not just leaders and militaries, as realism suggests :
a) Interstate (═►Formal foreign office arrangement ═►informal ties between Govt Elites)
b) Trans Governmental (═►informal ties between non government elites)
c) Trans National (═►International banks, multi national companies, corporations, etc).
2) Agenda without hierarchy of clear objectives OR States interact over many kinds of issues. War and security isn’t the only issue Economics, environmental issues, etc., are also addressed.
a) No clear hierarchy.
b) Difficult to differentiate between domestic and foreign issues.
c) Issues are considered at different levels.
3) Military Force will not be used against the nations in the same regions OR Military force is not central to inter-state relations (Interdependence is mostly applicable on Economic objectives or Ecological / environment Issues). 4) International organizations are the center of global politics They set agendas (e.g., trade, environmental issues) Within international organizations, states form coalitions and push for their interests
All states have an equal vote in most IOs.
Result: world politics is a lot like national politics.
Example: WTO policy. POLITICAL PROCESS OF