Comparing and Contrasting HBM & TTM
By: Glenn C. Mack
CJI 6530/HCP 6250
Substance Abuse Treatment in the Community
Nova Southeastern University
June 29th 2011
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, refers to a maladaptive pattern of use of a substance that is not considered dependent. The term "drug abuse" does not exclude dependency, but is otherwise used in a similar manner in nonmedical contexts. The terms have a huge range of definitions related to taking a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substance_abuse). People affected by substance abuse can go through great lengths to maintain this unhealthy behavior. For this reason substance abuse is an area that requires ongoing attention and intervention. Within the criminal justice system there are researched based models that have proven effective measures. In this paper I will compare and contrast two models, the Health Belief Model (HBM) developed by Irwin M. Rosenstock in 1966 and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) developed by James O. Prochaska in 1977.
The HBM is one of the most used conceptual frameworks in the health behavior research. HBM is a health behavior change and psychological model for studying and promoting the uptake of health services. The HBM have several concepts and predict why some people will take action to prevent, to screen, or to control illness conditions. These concepts include: susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and cues to action, self-efficacy and other variables. Perceived Susceptibility is an individual's assessment of their risk of getting the condition. For example an alcoholic must believe that it is a possibility of liver failure before getting a screen. Something must happen to the alcoholic before he or she thinks about taking a screening (ex. stomach ache, pain in the stomach, etc…). Perceived Severity is how serious an individual is about contraction an illness or leaving it untreated, and thinking about the consequences that may potentially accrue. “For behavior change to succeed, people must feel threatened by their current behavioral patterns and believe that change of a specific kind will result in a valued outcome at an acceptable cost. Perceived Benefits are positive consequences for adopting the behavior. For example if a crack addict quits smoking crack, then his/her positive consequence is that they may find a job, become stable, and be able to save money. Perceived Barriers are an individual's influences that facilitate or discourage adoption of the promoted behavior (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_Belief_Model ). Things that may stop you from implementing an action for the situation, due to expense, have negative side effects, inconvenient and/or time consuming. Cues to action are a perception of cues that can prompt actions. For example a drug abuse treatment facility promotes awareness to remind individuals of what drug abuse can do to the body. Self Efficacy can be referred to as one’s confidence to take action and successfully adopt a desired behavior. This is when an individual is convinced that he or she can overcome a drug addiction, and is willing to take the necessary steps to complete it. Other variables include diverse demographics, sociopsychological, and structural variables that may influence perceptions and thus, indirectly influence health-related behavior.
The TTM emerged from a comparative analysis of leading theories of psychotherapy and behavior change in an effort to integrate and field that had fragmented into more than 300 theories of psychotherapy (Prochaska, 1984). TTM assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change to action and maintenance. The TTM has a series of six stages that an individual will have...
References: Wikipedia, Substance Abuse. Retrieved June 12th 2011 from
Wikipedia, Behavior Health Model. Retrieved June 12th 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_Belief_Model
Wikipedia, Transtheoretical Model. Retrieved June 12th 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transtheoretical_model
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