Comparison Eu and Usa Gm Legislation and Regulations.

Topics: European Union, Genetically modified organism, Genetically modified food Pages: 16 (4763 words) Published: October 22, 2008
Comparison EU and USA GM
Legislation and Regulations.


Summary 3

Introduction4 -5

EU Legislation & Regulations
Legislative Structure of the EU6 - 7
The Legislative Process
Novel Foods and Novel Food 7 - 8
Ingredient Regulation (Regulation 258/97)

Regulations 1139/98; 49/2000 & 50/20008
Directive 2001/18/EC9
Labelling & Traceability10

US Legislation & Regulations
Food and Drug Association
& Labelling Issue 11 - 12

U.S. Department of Agriculture12
Environmental Protection Agency12

Discussion13- 14

Conclusion 15


In May 2003, the United States initiated an action in the World Trade Organization chal¬lenging the European Union’s failure to approve any new genetically modified (GM) crops for the last five years. This de facto moratorium has caused a significant decline in the export to the EU of U.S. corn. On July 22, 2003, the Council of Ministers voted on the measures and adopted the proposals on labeling and traceability. U.S. officials have attacked the new EU legislation as unnecessary and unworkable, while EU officials have defended it as non-discriminatory and necessary to rebuild consumer confidence in the EU food safety regulatory system and in GM foods generally (

There is a mandatory labelling of GM foods in the EU.
In the USA Food and Drug Authority does not require mandatory labelling, they just proposed voluntary labelling of the GM products. The regulations in EU are justified on biosafety grounds, when US trade concerns appear to play an increasing role about fearing export losses in market of the EU.

In this report outlined the legislative structure of the EU, the legislative process of the EU Also I have highlighted GM regulations in EU and USA including risk assessment provisions and labelling requirements. I have looked into conflict between EU and US in regards of the current and proposed EU regulations.


In 1996, when foods and feeds derived from GM crops were introduced to the European market, some governmental authorities strongly supported agricultural biotechnology. Eighteen GM crops had been approved for commercial growing in the EU. Despite widespread consumer resistance to GM foods four European countries, Spain, Portugal, France and Germany continue to plant commercialised GM crops.

GM foods became controversial in Europe in the late 1990s. Several food crises have made consumers in Europe extremely wary. The most significant of these crises – “mad cow disease” (BSE) Combined with dioxin tainted meat in Belgium and foot and mouth disease outbreaks all over Europe they dramatically influenced on consumer confidence in the government ability to provide safety of food supply.

Several food crises have made consumers in Europe extremely worried of changes to the food supply and of government regulatory agen¬cies. Although these crises have not been caused by GM food, GM food has been caught up in the general concern about food safety. Legislation was needed in order to restore consumer confidence and provide safety food supply. Several EU directives since then have been adopted. In the face of growing European public concern about GM foods, the EU adopted new labeling rules, and new product approvals, resulting in a de facto moratorium on new GM products. On the wake of these events in April 2000 was created the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) with aim to protect public health from risk, which may arise with consumption of food and protect interest of consumers in relation to food. This includes responsibility for issues relating to GM foods.

At the same time in the United States, large percentages of soybeans, cotton and maize have become genetically modified by now. In 2003, about 81 percent of the soybeans, 73 percent of the cotton, and 40 percent of...

References: J. Ralph Blanchfield, MBE (2000) Food Labelling, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, England
Kaarin Goodburn, (2001) EU Food Law, A Practical Guide, Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Cambridge, England
Norman Miller, (2002) Environmental Politics Casebook, Genetically Modified Foods, Lewis Publisher, USA
Office of the United States Trade representative
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