General Chart of Philosophical Models of EducationIdealism: Ideas are the only true reality, the only thing worth knowing. Focus: MindsRealism:
Reality exists independent of human mind. World of physical objects ultimate reality. Focus: BodiesPragmatism:
Universe is dynamic, evolving. Purpose of thought is action. Truth is relative. Focus: ExperiencesExistentialism:
Reality is subjective, within the individual. Individual rather than external standards. Focus: Freedoms
Originator(s)Plato, SocratesAristotle Charles Pierce, John DeweySartre, Kierkegaard Curricular EmphasisSubject matter of mind: literature, history, philosophy, religionSubject matter of physical world: science and mathSubject matter of social experience. Creation of new social orderSubject matter of personal choice Teaching MethodTeach method handling ideas: lecture and discussion questionTeach for mastery of facts and basic skills: demonstration and recitationProblem solving: Hand on
Project methodIndividual as entity within social context and Character DevelopmentImitating examples, heroesTraining in rules of conductMaking group decisions in light of consequencesIndividual responsibility for decisions and preferences Related Educational PhilosophiesPerennialism:
Focus: Teach ideas that are everlasting. Seek enduring truths which are constant, not changing, through old literature, art, philosophy and religion.Essentialism: Focus: Teach the common core, "the basics" of information and skills (cultural heritage) needed for citizenship. (Curriculum can change pace.)Progressivism: Focus: Ideas should be tested by active experimentation. Learning rooted in questions of learners in interaction with others. Experience and student centered.Reconstructionism/ Critical Theory
Focus: Critical pedagogy: Analysis of world events, controversial issues and diversity to provide vision for better world and social change. Key ProponentsRobert Hutchins,
Jacque Maritain and
Allan BloomWilliam Bagley;
Arthur Bestor and
Theodore SizerJohn Dewey and
William KilpatrickGeorge Counts,
Henry Giroux and
Related Theories of Learning (Psychological Orientations)Information Processing The mind makes meaning through symbol-processing structures of a fixed body of knowledge. Describes how information is received, processed, stored, and retrieved from the mind.Behaviorism Behavior shaped by design and determined by forces in environment. Learning occurs as result of reinforcing responses to stimuli. Social Learning skills:
Learning by observing and imitating others.Cognitivism/
Learner actively constructs own understandings of reality through interaction with environment and reflection on actions. Student-centered learning around conflicts to present knowing structures.Humanism Personal freedom, choice, responsibility. Achievement motivation towards highest levels. Control of own destiny. Child centered. Interaction with others. Key proponentsR. M. Gagne,
Robert Sternberg and
J.R. AndersoIvan Pavlov,
John Watson and
Jerome Bruner and
Lev VygotskyJ.J. Rousseau and
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