An Artificial Divide?
The purpose of this paper or 'the problem statement' is to analyze if Hindi and Urdu two separate languages, two varieties of a same language or a single variety. Some definitions before we proceed
Register: Manner of speaking or writing specific to a certain function, that is, characteristic of a certain domain of communication (or of an institution), for example, the language of religious sermons, of parents with their child, or of an employee with his/her supervisor.
Style: The characteristic use of language in a text. When referring to the speaker, style is more or less the controlled choice of linguistic means, whereas in referring to texts, style is the specific form of language. For the reader or listener, style is the variation (or confirmation) of possible expectations, i.e. the observation and interpretation of linguistic specifics.
Dialect Continuum: A dialect continuum, or dialect area, was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate such that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.
Standard Language: A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse. Alternatively, varieties become standard by undergoing a process of standardization, during which it is organized for description in grammars and dictionaries and encoded in such reference works. Typically, varieties that become standardized are the local dialects spoken in the centers of commerce and government, where a need arises for a variety that will serve more than local needs.
Pluricentric Language:A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several standard versions, both in spoken and in written forms. This situation usually arises when language and the national identity of its native speakers do not, or did not, coincide.
Diagraphia: In sociolinguistics, digraphia refers to the use of more than one writing system for the same language. Some scholars differentiate between synchronic digraphia with the coexistence of two or more writing systems for the same language and diachronic (or sequential) digraphia with the replacement of one writing system by another for a particular language. Diglossia: Diglossia refers to a stable situation in which two dialects or usually closely related languages are used by a single speech community for different functions. The Introduction
The Hindi-Urdu controversy is an age-old debate with its roots lying in the medieval history of India and the conflict finally taking shape in the 19th Century. While the question, are Hindi and Urdu same languages, was officially settled by the Government of India in 1950, when it declared Hindi as the official language of governance, the actual dilemma lives on. It is very much important to note that the problem does not only have social undertones but is awash and very much shaped by social differences. Hindi and Urdu are literary registers are literary registers of the Khariboli dialect of Hindi Languages, spoken by a large number of people in the sub-continent across the Hindi dialect continuum. It is worth noting that, a large a number of people in the 'Hindi belt' speak their local dialects of Hindi as mother tongue and the above-mentioned registers of Khariboli are later acquired. A persianized variant of Khariboli is referred with names Hindi, Urdu & Hindustani. In the following...
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