Comparing Psychological Theories
The Psychodynamic Theory, or psychoanalytic as it is also referred to, stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior. It is the systematized study and theory of the psychological forces that underlie human behavior, emphasizing the interplay between unconscious and conscious motivation (Gallop & Reynolds 2004). Its roots focus on the roles of unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses as a motive for choice and self-direction. The theory presents itself as our way of trying to balance our feelings, the unconscious being the reason why aggressive impulses are common reactions to the frustrations of daily life and that we seek to vent these impulses on other people. But because we fear rejection and retaliation, we put most aggressive impulses out of our minds, but by holding aggression in, we set the stage for future explosions (Gottlieb 2002). Behavioral theory (also known as behaviorism) says that psychology is the scientific study of observable behavior (Lickliter & Honeycutt 2003). The way we learn, the way we act, the way we speak, even the way we eat was learned. Everything around us is observable and the behavioral theory argues just that, because behavior is observable, and it is grounded in a reward versus punishment model, it is who we are and how we have learned to be . Because humans have learned the proper way of living through behavior and through the reinforcements that are granted for a given behavior, we have been able to survive (Gottlieb 2002). The Biological theory emphasizes the influence of biology on our behavior. Psychologists assume that our mental processes, that is our thoughts, fantasies, and dreams, are made possible by the nervous system. They point especially to its key component, the brain (Lickliter & Honeycutt 2003). Biologically oriented psychologists look for the connections between events in the brain, such as activity of the brain cells, and behavior and mental processes. All of these theories give
References: Lickliter, R., & Honeycutt, H. (2003) Developmental Dynamics: Toward a Biologically Plausible Evolutionary Psychology. Psychological Bulletin. 129 (6), 819-835
Gallop, R., & Reynolds, W. (2004). Putting it all together: Dealing with complexity in the understanding of the human condition. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 11(3), 357-364.
Gottlieb, G. (2002). Developmental -behavioral initiation of evolutionary change. Psychological Review, 109, 211-218.