I selected Japan and Vietnam to compare because they have most different in political system (Constitutional monarchy/Socialist Republic). However, both of them are democratic.
+ Japan is constitution monarchy country so the power of the Japan’s Emperor is very limited. The Emperor derives his position from the will of the people with who resides sovereign power. In fact, the Emperor is only a symbol of the State that represents the Japanese to perform some acts following the advice and approval of the Cabinet. The Emperor’s roles are virtually communicated on behalf of the country such as receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers, performance of ceremonial functions, convocation of the Diet, etc. He also attests the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, and the powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. + Vietnam: The president is the head of state and his priority is to represent Vietnam internally and externally. Because Vietnam policy is team leadership so it does not approve the role of individual. However, the president still has both executive and legislative powers. The president of Vietnam promulgates laws, decree-laws and the Constitution. In the field of recruitment of civil servant, he can appoint or dismiss the Vice President, propose to the Nation Assembly the election or dismissal from office of the Vice President, the Prime Minister and the President of the Supreme People's Court. One of the duties of Vietnam’s president is to receive foreign ambassadors extraordinary and plenipotentiary to negotiate and sign international agreements on behalf of the Vietnam Socialist Republic with the Heads of other States; he also can approve or join international agreements, except in cases where a decision by the National Assembly is necessary. - Bureaucracy:
In general, the bureaucracy system in Japan and Vietnam is quite similar. The Japanese and Vietnamese bureaucracy...
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