Utilitarianism comprises of two types of criteria which is rule based and act based. Rule-based utilitarianism argues that general principles are used as criteria for deciding the greatest benefit to be achieved from acting in a certain way. Act based utilitarians on the other hand analyze a particular action or behavior to determine whether the greatest utility or good can be achieved. Utilitarianism also includes the following tenets that an action is morally right if it produces the greatest good for the greatest number of people, if the net benefits over costs are greatest for all affected compared with the net benefits of all other possible choices and it its benefits are greatest …show more content…
Identify the problems associated with ethical and cultural relativisms.
Ethical relativism holds that no universal standards or rules can be used to guide or evaluate the morality of an act. This view argues that people set their own moral standards for judging their actions. Only the individual’s self-interest and values are relevant for judging his or her behavior.
The logic of ethical relativism also extends to cultures. Cultural relativists would argue that firms and business professionals doing business in a country are obliged to follow that country’s law and moral codes. The benefit of ethical and cultural relativism is that they recognize the distinction between individual and social values and customs. These views take seriously the different belief systems of individuals and societies. Social norms and mores are seen in a cultural context.
Nonetheless, relativism can lead to several problems. First, these views imply an underlying laziness. Individuals who justify their morality only from their personal beliefs, without taking into consideration other ethical principles may use the logic of relativism as an excuse for not having or developing moral standards. Second, this view contradicts everyday experience. Moral reasoning is developed from conversation, interaction, and