The British Association for Counselling’s Code of Ethics and Practice for Counsellors states that ‘Counselling may be concerned with developmental issues, addressing and resolving specific problems, making decisions, coping with crisis, developing personal insight and knowledge, working through feelings of inner conflict or improving relationships with others’ (BACP Ethical Framework).
Throughout this essay I will illustrate the similarities and differences between the three core theories by looking at the theory behind each concept, the nature of the client/counsellor relationship and the techniques used. The three core theories to be considered here are Humanistic, Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
Firstly I will begin by looking at the theory behind each of the main concepts. I will begin with the Humanistic Approach. Person-centred therapy is a non-scientific concept, developed by Carl Rogers. Rogers believed that we are all born with the ability to gain self-actualisation and have an organismic self. e He quoted, “the organism has one basic tendency and striving-to actualise, maintain and enhance the experiencing organism.” (Rogers, 1951, p487) However, the organismic self can be infringed upon by conditions of worth placed upon us in early childhood and thus for the positive regard of others, we may ignore our internal valuing for the love of significant others. Rogers called this the adapted self.
Rogers believed that in order for a client to reach self-actualisation there must be three core conditions; empathy, unconditional positive regard and genuineness. These three core conditions are used to emphasise the counsellor’s appreciation for the client. This then enhances the clients’ self-concept. Rogers believed the self-concept was split into three sections, self-worth (thoughts of our self), self-image (how we view our body image), and the ideal self (what we would like to