Compare and contrast the ideas expressed in two texts. To what extend do these texts show that national and cultural stereotypes are no longer a useful way of examining the human condition and economic activity? Choose an element in the texts which you find interesting and explain your reaction to it by giving examples from your own experience.
People working around the world often meet different kinds of cultures. They frequently feel in contradictory with paradoxical stereotypes that seems not exactly what they have learned before. This essay will discuss about national and cultural stereotypes by Yong and Piller’s research. Yong discusses about stereotypes in human conditions and Piller discusses about stereotypes mainly in economic activities. Both of them have different view of how usefulness in different conditions. Lastly, this essay will include my own experiences of stereotypes and show my opinions of Yong and Piller’s ideas.
Yong looks at cultural stereotypes between East and West in psychological terms. He compares and contrasts older research with more recent research and shows how the new research findings do not support the old research.
Yong discusses three different stereotypes between East and West. First of all, it is claimed that how easterners and westerners categories objects in different ways. Nisbett’s research (cited in Yong (2009)) appears to support this stereotype. For example it showed that, Americans tend to look things rely on shared features and Asians group things according to what they related to.
The second cultural stereotype, regarding differences between easterners and westerners is ho w they view causality. For example, according to research by Nisbett (cited in Yong 2009 p.19), American news prefers to focus murders or other events on the traits and abilities of individuals. However, Chinese news reports focus on the relationships between murders and victims.
The last stereotype discuss by Nisbett is how Americans and Chinese people use logic (Nisbett, cited in Yong (2009)). Chinese like contradictions and tend to find the middle position of two contrary opinions, while Americans prefer to take one instead. However, Yong doubts that easterners think holistically and westerners think analytically.
There are other research said that the view undermined by studies of how people see themselves. Local and current environment affect the way how people think more than history and geography (Nisbett, cited in Yong (2009)). For instance, compares three groups living in Turkey who share the same language, geography and ethnicity, but have different social lives: Because of their daily needs, farmers and fishers have to trade intensively, while herders are more independent and mobile. Nisbett finds out farmers and fishers think more holistically than herders.
Oyserman says that we cannot test if history mattered. He suggests that we can test how connections can summon a person’s way of thinking and their opinions. Art Markman and Kyungli Kim do the experiment to understand how isolation would affect the mindset. They separate some American students into two parties, one of them join together and the other party ostracized. After that, students from both parties study different cows against various backgrounds. Art Markman and Kyungli finds out students who isolated from the group likely to pay more attention to the relationship between cows and environment. According to the experiment, social isolation can make American students behave like easterners.
Everyone can think both holistic and analytic ways, but on average, people tend to do more one than other (Oyserman, cited in Yong (2009)). Stereotypes are not that as accurate as it suggest. Beside the different societies, minds of easterners and westerners operate equally and we can all think holistically and analytically on context. It appears from Yong’s discussion of national and cultural...
References: Piller, I. (2011) ‘Intercultural Communication for sale’ in intercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh University Press
Yong, E. (2009) ‘East Meets West ‘ New Scientist March 2009 issue
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