Plato and Aristotle have similar beliefs about the soul being connected to the human body, and that man is not inherently evil. Yes both of them are genius and lived in the same time. In ideas, they are quite different since Plato is idealistic and Aristotle is realistic. The similarity would be in their subject matter. Both of them are explaining their theories regarding the backbone of what we are now Plato believed that a soul transmigrated until it was able to free itself from physical form and returned to the realm without form. Plato also taught that true knowledge came from the soul and reason which would make him a rationalist and he believed that things like beauty and good in the physical world were reflections of reality. He taught that the physical body had "forgotten" its true self and thus the soul would move about until such time as it became aware of its true nature once again and freed its self from the physical realm. Aristotle also believed in a soul but he maintained that the human soul was unique to the ability to reason. He also taught that there were two parts to human reasoning passive and creative. The creative part was the spiritual part and the passive part was the physical aspect. Aristotle taught that at death the passive part died with the body but the creative part lived on to join with god whom he described as the "prime mover" and considered the idea a metaphysical necessity. High described god as "Pure thought thinking about itself". Plato and Aristotle both drew from Socrates as a primary influence. Aristotle stated that philosophy exist because of the minds ability to wonder. Plato is pointing toward the heavens, Aristotle is pointing toward the earth. Plato believed "essence" (the essential element of each thing in existence) came from the heavens, and what we saw were mirror images--of the gods.
Aristotle said essences were "in the things themselves." He meant it as if, someday, science could somehow extract that...
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