Compare and contrast Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory with Vroom’s Expectancy theory. Is it possible to combine these two theories? How and why should, or shouldn’t it be so? Provide examples to support.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory focuses on the internal needs of employees. This theory suggests that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are not mere opposite of each other and controlled by a different set of factors. While job dissatisfaction is believed to be associated directly with the surrounding environment that people work in, job satisfaction is closely linked to the work itself and the outcome directly resulting from the work.
On the other hand, Vroom’s Expectancy theory focuses on outcomes and the process of how people rationally select the path that will benefit them the most. The Expectancy theory suggests that an employee’s motivation is greatly influenced by one’s expectations and perception. To be motivated, an employee must believe that she is able to complete or perform the task properly and that efforts will lead to better performance, which will eventually result in desired outcome or reward.
Herzberg and Vroom attempted to rationalize individual’s motivation and job satisfaction by focusing on two different aspects and methods. In my personal opinion, Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory seems rather simplistic and generalized. The core message of his theory was drawn from a limited study covering 200 engineers and accountants, which only represented a specific group of the entire work force. Vroom’s Expectancy theory places more importance on the individuality. For instance, all employees in the same organization may not value the same motivational factors such as promotion, salary increase, recognition, and etc. However, its appreciation for individual differences makes Vroom’s theory difficult to implement. According to Vroom, a manager would have to ask their employees to sit down, list out all their expected outcomes/rewards and...
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