Education in general appears to be shaped by four educational traditions. The first view is known as Encyclopaedism, it is very strongly inherent with the ideas from the "˜enlightenment' period. It has been a very influential frame, especially for European countries such as France. This view promotes the idea that valid knowledge should be categorised, codified, and learnt. It promotes the concept that education provides the ability to think rationally, to reason, which leads to a better society with "˜enlightened' people who, from education have the ability to use knowledge and reasoning with situations they encounter throughout their lives.
The second traditional view is based from a philosophical root known as humanism. It highlights the concept that education creates a "˜virtuous individual' who posses high qualities of moral values, and high levels of intelligence. The humanism belief is strongly developed from English public schools and universities. This approach strongly emphasises the role of the academic tutor who in some ways acts as a "˜role model' and though their guidance and example results in the pupil