Compare and Contrast Between Egypt and China

Topics: Phonology, Lexicon, Language Pages: 42 (12026 words) Published: April 23, 2013
Clinical Forum
The Lexicon and Phonology:
Interactions in Language Acquisition
Holly L. Storkel1
Michele L. Morrisette
Indiana University, Bloomington
24 LANGUAGE, SPEECH, AND HEARING SERVICES IN SCHOOLS • Vol. 33 • 24–37 • January 2002 © American Speech-Language-Hearing Association 0161–1461/02/3301–0024
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to underscore
the importance of the link between lexical and phonological
acquisition by considering learning by children
beyond the 50-word stage and by applying cognitive
models of spoken word processing to development.
Lexical and phonological variables that have been shown
to influence perception and production across the
lifespan are considered relative to their potential role in
learning by preschool children. The effect of these
lexical and phonological variables on perception,
production, and learning are discussed in the context of
a two-representation connectionist model of spoken word
processing. The model appears to offer insights into the
complex interaction between the lexicon and phonology
and may be useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment of
children with language delays.
KEY WORDS: language development, lexicon, phonology,
neighborhood density, phonotactic probability
To acquire the native language, a child must do
two things: Learn the words of the language
and extract the relevant phonological characteristics
of those words. For the most part, the acquisition
of words and sounds has been investigated independently.
That is, some lines of investigation concentrate exclusively on how the words of the language are acquired (e.g., Carey
& Bartlett, 1978; Dollaghan, 1985; Heibeck & Markman, 1987; Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995; Rice & Woodsmall, 1988), whereas other lines of research examine how the sounds of
the language emerge (e.g., Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, &
Powell, 1990; Dyson, 1988; Smit, Hand, Freilinger,
Bernthal, & Bird, 1990; Stoel-Gammon, 1985). The mutual
influence of lexical and phonological development is an
area that has received only limited attention. The few
descriptive and experimental studies that have addressed
this issue, however, provide preliminary evidence for an
interaction between lexical and phonological development.
Descriptive studies primarily have examined the relationship between the phonological characteristics of babble and
first words. Studies of typically developing children have
shown that first words are phonologically similar to babble
(e.g., Oller, Wieman, Doyle, & Ross, 1976; Stoel-Gammon
& Cooper, 1984; Vihman, Ferguson, & Elbert, 1986;
Vihman, Macken, Miller, Simmons, & Miller, 1985). For
example, the distribution of consonants and the syllable
structure of first words are identical to that of babble
(Vihman et al., 1985). This association between lexical and
phonological development is observed in children with
precocious language development as well as in children
with delayed language development (Paul & Jennings,
1992; Stoel-Gammon & Dale, 1988; Thal, Oroz, & McCaw, 1995; Whitehurst, Smith, Fischel, Arnold, & Lonigan,
1991). In particular, children who know many words tend
to produce a greater variety of sounds and sound combinations, whereas children who know few words tend to
produce a limited variety of sounds and sound combinations.
There appears to be a potentially robust relationship
between the phonological characteristics of first words and
babble. This is suggestive of an intimate connection
between word learning and productive phonology.
In addition to descriptive evidence, experimental studies
provide further support for the hypothesis that lexical and
phonological development influence one another. For
example, one study of young children with expressive
language delay demonstrated that treatment focused on
1 Currently affiliated with the University of Kansas.
Storkel • Morrisette: The...

References: Aslin, R. N., Saffran, J. R., & Newport, E. L. (1998). Computation
of conditional probability statistics by 8-month-old infants.
Beckman, M. E., & Edwards, J. (1999). Lexical frequency effects
on young children’s imitative productions
Behrend, D. A. (1990). The development of verb concepts:
Children’s use of verbs to label familiar and novel events
Bloom, L. (1973). One word at a time: The use of single word
utterances before syntax
Brown, G. D. (1984). A frequency count of 190,000 words in the
London-Lund corpus of English conversation
Carey, S., & Bartlett, E. (1978). Acquiring a single new word.
Charles-Luce, J., & Luce, P. A. (1990). Similarity
neighbourhoods of words in young children’s lexicons
Charles-Luce, J., & Luce, P. A. (1995). An examination of
similarity neighbourhoods in young children’s receptive
DeBrunhoff, L. (1981). Babar’s anniversary album. New York:
Random House.
Dell, G. S. (1990). Effects of frequency and vocabulary type on
phonological speech errors
Dell, G. S., & Reich, P. A. (1981). Stages in sentence production:
An analysis of speech error data
Dinnsen, D. A., Chin, S. B., Elbert, M., & Powell, T. W. (1990).
Dollaghan, C. A. (1985). Child meets word: “Fast mapping” in
preschool children
Dollaghan, C. A. (1987). Fast mapping in normal and languageimpaired
Dollaghan, C. A. (1994). Children’s phonological neighbourhoods:
Half empty or half full? Journal of Child Language, 21,
Dore, J. (1978). Conditions for the acquisition of speech acts. In I.
Dyson, A. T. (1988). Phonetic inventories of 2- and 3-year-old
Ellis Weismer, S., & Hesketh, L. J. (1996). Lexical learning by
children with specific language impairment: Effects of linguistic
Ellis Weismer, S., & Hesketh, L. J. (1998). The impact of
emphatic stress on novel word learning by children with specific
language impairment. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing
Research, 41, 1444–1458.
Gierut, J. A., Morrisette, M. L., & Champion, A. H. (1999).
Geisel, T. S., & Geisel, A. S. (1954). Horton hears a who! New
York: Random House.
Geisel, T. S., & Geisel, A. S. (1958). Cat in the hat comes back.
Girolametto, L., Pearce, P. S., & Weitzman, E. (1997). Effects of
lexical intervention on the phonology of late talkers
Goldinger, S. D., & Summers, V. W. (1989). Lexical neighborhoods
in speech production: A first report
Gopnik, A., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1986). Words, plans, things and
locations: Interactions between semantic and cognitive development
Gupta, P., & MacWhinney, B. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition and
verbal short-term memory: Computational and neural bases.
Heibeck, T. H., & Markman, E. M. (1987). Word learning in
children: An examination of fast mapping
58, 1021–1034.
Hohne, E. A., Jusczyk, A. M., & Rendanz, N. J. (1994, June).
Huttenlocher, J., & Kubicek, L. F. (1983). The source of
relatedness effects on naming latency
Jusczyk, P. W. (1997). The discovery of spoken language.
Jusczyk, P. W., & Aslin, R. N. (1995). Infants’ detection of the
sound patterns of words in fluent speech
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Compare and Contrast: Egypt & China Essay
  • Essay on Compare and Contrast Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Egypt and Mesopatamia Compare Contrast Essay
  • Meso and Egypt Compare/ Contrast Essay
  • Compare/Contrast China and India Essay
  • Compare And Contrast Japan And China Essay
  • Compare and Contrast: Ancient China and Egypt Essay
  • Egypt vs. America Compare & Contrast Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free