Ancient Egypt and Ancient Mesopotamia had very different outlooks on life. The Mesopotamians viewed humankind as caught in an inherently disorderly world, and subject to whims of quarreling gods. By contrast, the Ancient Egyptians had a more cheerful and hopeful outlook on the world. Also, the Mesopotamians didn't have much hope of a good after life, while the Egyptians did. These different views were developed because of the different environments they were in. The Mesopotamians developed this outlook in a precarious, unpredictable, and violent environment, but the Egyptians were in a more stable, predictable, and beneficial environment. These things clearly show how different there outlooks on life were.
Along with their outlooks being different, so were the structures of their government and cities. The Mesopotamian civilization was organized in a dozen or more different city states, while the Egyptian civilization maintained unity. This being, cities in Egypt were far less important than in Mesopotamia. Each city-state in Mesopotamia was ruled by a different king, that claimed to be that city's patron deity. The Egyptians were ruled by a pharaoh, believed to be a god in human form. This shows that were ruled in very different ways, by very different people. It also shows how different the structure of their cities were.
Even though the Egyptians and Mesopotamians had many differences they also had some similarities, one being their interaction and trade. They frequently interacted with each other, and with both near and more distant neighbors. They were both embedded in larger networks of commerce, culture, and power. Neither