17 April 2012
Compare and Contrast
Cognitive development is the development of intelligence and problem-solving ability that begins when you are a child. Jean Piaget and Lev S. Vygotsky were two psychologists who focused on cognitive development and had similar and different ideas with the subject. We will found out how Piagets theory is compared and contrast to Vygotskys theory.
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist that focused on the education of children and its importance. His two major principles operated in cognitive development were organization and adaptation. Piagets organization principle focused on how the mind is structured in increasingly complex ways. He viewed schemes as a mental representation of an action that can be performed on any type of object. Piagets second principle, adaptation, focuses on the processes of assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the way we take information from the outside world and bring it to their existing behavior. For example, for a child the world is involved with physical objects and the scheme at the time is to put objects in their mouth. The second process that is branched off with Assimilation is accommodation. Accommodation focuses on adapting old schemes to process new information. An example of this is when a baby or child becomes older, they can come across a coffee table and realize that the object is to big to put in their mouths. This shows the old scheme and then accommodates changes the old scheme by putting their face at the corner of it and chewing on the corner piece. Piaget then comes up with the major periods or stages that humans have to grow through as they get older. The first stage is the sensorimotor period which was the stage from the ages 0-2. This stage he believes is where the infant did not have language or thought in the early stage because their understanding to reality was absent. The next stage that comes as the sensorimotor period is the preoperational periods which were between the ages of 2-7. In this stage, language development is the main characteristic in this stage. Piaget believed that in this stage children are unable to understand concrete logic and also they are unable to see another person’s point of view because if the child cannot see you then the child believes you cannot see them either, which was called egocentrism. The third stage is concrete operations which is the ages 7-11. In this stage, Piaget believed that children were getting better understanding with logic. Children would start to think a lot better logically but then it was difficult for them to understand abstract concepts. This stage is also the stage where the development of reversibility of thought is taken place. Reversibility is the awareness where they realize that actions can be can be reversed. The last stage of Piaget’s Stage Theory is formal operational period is from the ages of 11-up. In this stage people start to think more logically and developed a way to think about abstract concepts. Also in this stage is the ability and skills of logical thoughts and the ability of reasoning. This is Piaget’s Stage Theory and shows the different stages you go through as you get older.
Lev S. Vygotsky is a Russian psychologist who also focuses on the importance of children education. Vygotsky observed the way children arrange objects, such as blocks differing in color, shape, and size. He viewed six years olds being more selective and choosing a certain type of color, shape or size. Vygotsky believed that the children under the age of six used a chain concept which the classification changes throughout the selection process. He also believes that preschoolers seemed to categorize stuff thematically rather than taxonomically. Meaning adults will categorize specific objects that relate to each other in one category like animals which is the taxonomic classification. Thematic classification is...
Cited: Solso, Robert L., Otto H. MacLin, and M. Kimberly. MacLin. Cognitive Psychology. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2008. Print.
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