community based tourism

Topics: Tourism, World Tourism Organization, Local government Pages: 8 (2151 words) Published: September 2, 2014
At the beginning of the 21st century, a change was observed the tastes of tourists, who moved towards other forms of tourism. This could have been due to knowledge of new destinations, up until that point unexplored by tourists, and the search for a destination with greater focus on local customs, history, ethics and the particular culture of the destination. In this sense, cultural diversity is looked upon as a means of enriching the experience of increasingly active tourists who are looking for new experiences. On the one hand, al local level, opportunities have been observed to develop plans for the participation of new actors and strategies, and for the involvement of civil corporations in the development process. Tourism is the travel for recreational, leisure, family or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is refers to travel to another location within the same country and as well as trans-national travel. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".

The concept of Community-based Tourism (CBT) can be found in the work of Murphy (1985), where aspects concerning tourism and developing local communities are analyzed, and in a further study by the same author in 2004 (Murphy and Murphy, 2004). Along with these two studies, there are several other research papers analyzing the relationship between tourism and local communities (such as Richards and Hall, 2000). This concept paves the way for new lines of investigation and for the possibility of tourism development together with other alternatives such as Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT); Community Benefit Tourist Initiatives (CBTIs) (Simpsons, 2008); or Community-Based Enterprises (CBEs) (Manyara and Jones, 2007). To summaries, all these initiatives agree that the destination community should be included in the tourism planning and management decision-making process, owed to three main reasons: it considers them to be part of the tourist product, local communities adapt to changes easily, and it helps to open their minds. Several projects based on CBT can be found in scientific literature: in Africa (Lepp, 2007; Manyara and Jones, 2007; Kibicho, 2008), Asia (Nyaupane et al., 2006; Okazaki, 2008; Kayat, 2010), Oceania (Dyer et al., 2003), and in different countries of Latin America such as Brazil (Guerreiro, 2007), Ecuador (Ruiz etal., 2008), Mexico (Bringas and Israel, 2004) and Peru (Zorn and Farthing, 2007). CBT is based on the active participation of the local community. This is why the creation of community events which may favors this type of tourism, while at the same time helping to create a relationship between the local community and visitors, is so important. To facilitate this, different public administrations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), private institutions and the local community itself should get involved and work together. According to Nyaupane et al. (2006), the main limitations local communities have to face when implementing tourism projects are the following: lack of financial resources, infrastructure or know-how; limitations of a cultural kind; and potential conflicts between the different public administrations. At the same time, the following factors are described as being highly important for CBT implementation (Kibicho, 2008): the inclusion of stakeholders, the evaluation of individual and collective benefits, the setting of objectives, And analysis of decisions to be implemented. The main benefits of community tourism are the direct economic impact on families, socioeconomic improvements, and sustainable diversification of lifestyles (Manyara and Jones, 2007; Rastegar, 2010). CBT is certainly an effective way of implementing policy coordination, avoiding conflicts between different actors in tourism,...
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