The findings further suggest that those estimated associations are transmitted through mothers' parenting. The study also discusses the policy and practice implications of its findings.
Demographic changes, including dramatic growth in the number of nonmarital births, have increased the number of cbildren raised iu single-mother families. In 2006, for example, nonmarital births accounted for 50.4 percent of all births to women under age 30 (Herbert
2008). Single mothers are more likely than other mothers to be poor, and their children are more likely than others to have an uninvolved or missing father (McAdoo 1993; Staples 1999; McLoyd et al. 2000).
Some, including President Barack Obama, contend that fathers, whether resident or nonresident, are critical to the foundation of the family
(Bosnian 2008). Others argue that children develop optimally in famihes that include both a primary caregiver (usually a mother) and another supporter (often a father) of the primary caregiver (see, e.g., Broufen-
Sodal Service Review (December 2010).
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656 Social Service Review brenner 1988; Jackson and Scheines 2005; Jackson, Choi, and Franke
2009). There is