Definition - is an attempt to discover something.
There are two type of research which is:
1. Formal research
-Researcher follow highly define and exacting procedure.
2. Informal research
-Only few (or no) specific plans or steps.
There are several important elements of research such as, the concept and construct, variables, qualitative and quantitative research, nature of measurements, level of measurements, measurement scale, rating scale and also the reliability and validity.
– is a term that express an abstract idea formed by generalizing from particulars and summarizing related observations. Example
-researcher observe that a speaker become restless, start to per-spire, and fidgets with a pencil just before giving speech. The researcher might summarize those observed patterns of behaviour and label them as “speech anxiety”. The typical concept in mass media research include terms such as advertising effectiveness, message length, media usage and readability. Two reason why concept is important,
1. Simplify the research process
They simplify the research process by combining particular characteristic, object, or people into general categories. Eg- a researcher may study families that own computers, modems, MP3 players, cell phones and DVD or Blu-Ray machines. To make it easier to describe the families, the researcher calls than “Taffies” and categorize them under the concept of “technologically advance families.” Instead of describing each of the characteristic that make the families unique, the researcher has a general that is more inclusive and convenient to use. 2. Simplify communication
Concepts simplify communication to those who have shared understanding of them. Researchers use concepts to organize their observations into meaningful summaries and to transmit this information to others. Eg - when teenagers use their word ‘emo’ to describe a person, most of their peers understand perfectly what is meant by the concept, although adult may not.
-is a phenomena or event that can be manipulated.
Two types of variable,
1. Independent variable
Are systematically varied by the researcher.
Eg- influence from peer and family problem.
2. Dependent variable
Are observed, and their values are presumed to depend on the effects (influence) of the independent variable. What the researcher wants to explain. Eg- (relate to eg 1) increase in social problems.
Reliability of measurement scale
A measure is reliable if it is consistently gives the same answer. Reliability in measurement is the same with the reliability with other context. Eg- reliable person= dependable, stable, and consistent over time. unreliable person= unpredictable, may act one way today an another tomorrow Two components in reliability in measurement
1. Individual’s “true” score on the measuring instrument. 2. Random error.
Measurement Instrument 1: obtained score= 50
Measurement Instrument 2: obtained score= 50
Measurement in instrument 1- highly reliable because the ratio of the true component of the true component of the score to the total score is high. Measurement in instrument 2- unreliable because the ratio of the true component to the total is low.
d) Nominal Scale
Basically a way of categorizing or grouping behavior, where the actual numbers are simply labels or identifiers. Eg- You were interested in whether a particular display in a store was more effective in inducing males or females in purchasing the product. You could categorize your observations into two categories of 'look but fail to purchase' and 'look and purchase.' You could then assign a '1' to females and '2' to males and record your data in each category. Using '1' for females is completely arbitrary -- it's just an identifier. You could have used 'A,' '2', 'bluk,' or whatever. The point here...
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