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Communication and Child

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Communication and Child

1. How does communication affect relationships with colleagues and carers? For this consider the affect of good communication, bad communication and being unable to communicate.


Communication affects relationships with colleagues and carers in many ways. When we meet new members of staff or carers the way in which we communicate determines the way we build a relationship with that person. If we communicate well with carers other members of staff it enables us to provide the best care for the children as you would be able to discuss openly and honestly to improve the children’s environment, learning opportunities and also your own personal practice to make any changes needed.

However if we communicate badly it puts up barriers and makes certain subjects difficult to discuss and there for the children are not getting the best care possible and can also make people feel uncomfortable and unhappy about coming to work. This can also lead to eventually being unable to communicate which makes work harder for you as you are not getting information or feedback you may need to communicate effectively and give the best possible care.

2. What do you need to consider when you are encouraging communication?


There are many things to consider when we are encouraging communication which are:

• The method we use to communicate. Most of the time we do this face to face however it is not always the best or most suitable for some people to communicate in this way other forms of communication include phone, sign language, letters and memos, emails, reports, makaton, visual images i.e. pictures or photographs and audio/visual recordings.

If however you do choose to communicate using a face to face method you need to consider the environment in which you are communicating as for young people it is best to do this in a comfortable, homely environment where as if you are communicating with an adult this is best done in a quiet place.

You also need to be aware of your proximity i.e. how close you are to the person you are communicating with for example a child or baby who has a close bond to you may prefer to communicate whilst being close but a child who may not know you very well or an adult will probably prefer to have some personal space barriers. Orientation is also important this means where you position your body for example if you are opposite someone , it sends out different messages to what it would give out for you to be at the side of them, and also your posture if you lean forward it shows interest in what the person who is talking to you is saying but if you lean back this could portrait boredom. Also things like touch, physical gesture, body language, facial expression, verbal communication vocabulary, linguistic tone and pitch are all things to be aware of when trying to encourage communication.

3. Identify ways that people’s background can affect the way that we communicate.


Everyone’s background effects the way that they communicate as there are so many ways for it to do so these include

• Culture and family background – This is because in different cultures things as simple as making eye contact can mean different things or just simply down to a difference in language for example someone who speaks another language may need an interpreter or someone who is deaf may need to use sign language.

• Family background- All families have a unique way of communicating with one another for example some households will be loud others will be quiet, some families speak two languages, others just one. This affects the way in which a child will communicate with you but also will affect the way a child will communicate when they become an adult.

• Personality- Personality plays a big part in the way we communicate for example someone who is not very confident in personality may seem un interested in group discussion to someone who is confident ,when in fact it is probably because they just don’t have that confidence in that part of their personality.

• Confidence and self-esteem- Confidence and self- esteem effects the way in which we communicate as for example if a child has been mocked for getting a number wrong they may become an adult who avoids maths ,Or a child who is praised for something they had wrote may become an adult who loves to write.

• Literacy- Literacy can effect the way in which we communicate as it involves reading and writing skills .some people have these skills and others may struggle for a variety of reasons for example-: learning difficulties or because they are using a language they are not yet fluent in.

• ICT knowledge- ICT knowledge effects the way in which we communicate as there are many different types of communication that require some ICT knowledge for example-: sending and receiving emails, texting, using the phone, internet chat etc. Just the same as literacy different people have different competencies and so may or may not feel comfortable using these types of Ict.

4. Explain the meaning of confidentiality and this relates to your settings policies and procedures? SC1.4.1/ 1.4.2

Confidentiality means that if something is confidential it is not to repeated to anyone. In my setting confidential information and records are kept locked away and the only people who have accesses to it are the people who need to see it. This relates to my settings policies and procedures because we hold information on parents, staff and children that is personal and should only be shared if you or someone else is at risk and even then only people who are relevant to this need to be informed for example, management or if needed outside agencies.

5. In what situations would you break confidentiality? SC1.4.3

There are a number of situations where you would need to break confidentiality mainly if you or someone else is at risk for example this could include-

• If you have concerns about a child’s welfare, for example neglect or abuse.

• Where a child or young person is suspected of committing abuse.

• Where a crime has been committed.

6. Using the chart below to identify 5 barriers to communication and how you can overcome these. SC1.3.2/1.3.3/1.3.5

|Barrier |How can I support communication? |Additional support from other agencies |
| | |and/ or resources. |
|Language |By being patient and talking slowly using |You may be able to use an interpreter in |
| |facial expressions and body language as a |these circumstances or if they have a |
| |way to communicate. |family member who could translate for |
| | |them. Or you could use pictures. |
| | |If dealing with a child it may help if |
| |It is important to remember that we are |they have a comforter or favourite thing |
|Confidence and self esteem. |all individuals and have different levels |to let them hold on to this while things |
| |of confidence and self esteem. Get to know|seem new to them. If dealing with an adult|
| |people as individuals if they are shy let |you could use an alternative method of |
| |them come to you find out what they are |communication for example letter, email, |
| |confident in talking to you about and |or phone or you could simply use a more |
| |build on this trust slowly . Also giving |quiet room to talk to them in. |
| |praise and encouragement can play a huge | |
| |part in building confidence and self | |
| |esteem. | |
|Literacy |By finding out the reasons for literacy |Brail, audio message on phone, letter |
| |being a barrier and dealing with this |written in another language. |
| |accordingly for example someone who is | |
| |blind may need there letters in brail or | |
| |some people find it hard to read small | |
| |print so using a larger font size may help| |
| |or just simply reading a letter for | |
| |someone who has not learnt to read. | |
|Deafness |By learning some sign language or makaton | You may be able to use an interpreter to |
| |may make it easier to pass on information |help communication also pictures may help.|
| |also body language and facial expression | |
| |play a huge part of communicating with | |
| |someone who is deaf. | |
|Personalities |By being able to listen as well as talk |If communication reaches a low between you|
| |and being open to the fact that you may |it may be necessary to have someone to |
| |have been wrong and being able to |mediate between you both to help you |
| |apologise when you are wrong. Also being |understand things a bit better. Also you |
| |able to show understanding for peoples |could try going somewhere a little quieter|
| |differences in opinion to your own. |where you both feel calm to discuss |
| | |things. |

7. Identify reasons people communicate. SC1.1.1

There are a number of reasons people communicate these include-

• To maintain a relationship.

• To build a relationship.

• To express needs and feelings.

• To share ideas and thoughts.

• To gain reassurance and acknowledgement.

• To gain and share information.

8. Explain why positive relationships with children and young people are important and how these are built and maintained. CYPC 5.1.1

Positive relationships with children and young people are important for a number of reasons mainly because for a child to or young person to be able to learn they need to have a certain amount of trust in the person teaching them and it is hard to trust someone who you do not have a positive relationship with. This also provides the child with an opportunity to feel relaxed enough to be able to discuss any problems, worries or concerns they may have and in turn this helps build confidence and self esteem which also aids when learning and can help the child to not have confidence issues later in life.

You build these relationships by taking things slowly to begin with giving the child time to adjust to their new environment and get to know people and surroundings this is known as a settling period. During this time I would make observations on things that the child likes or activities that the child enjoys and use this as next steps to get involved and spend time with the child when they are feeling most happy. I praise, encourage and comfort the child when needed and also make sure I have a good relationship with the child’s parent as if a child can see their parent has a good relationship with you this is likely to help them feel more relaxed around you. All this will eventually lead to a relationship built on trust and care and eventually when the child feels settled enough they will approach you for help, advice and support, as long as you continue to do these things your relationship should remain maintained.

9. Evaluate your own effectiveness in building relationships with children or young people. CYPC 5.1.3

I have explained above how I build relationships and believe that this works best. I believe that if you rush a child to settle or don’t pay attention to their likes and dislikes and push yourself on them children will generally push back the other way as they feel a lack of control on the situation which can lead to a child becoming withdrawn or upset or angry that no one understands what they want or need.

10. Explain in your own words, why positive relationships with people involved in the care of children and young people, are important. CYPC 5.2.1

Positive relationships with the people involved in the care of children and young people is important for various reasons mainly because if you have a positive relationship with these people it makes it easier to pass on information and discuss various views and opinions which will impact the child’s care and learning as different people will have different views and all need to be taken on board in order to provide the best care and learning for each individual child. Also a child see’s and hears people talking and if they feel tensions then they are likely to behave differently around these people so you don’t get a true understanding of the child.

11. In your own words, explain the importance of multi-agency working. CYPC 6.1.1

Multi-agency working is important as they all have areas of expertise and have more time to focus on that certain area. When they work together with us it gives extra help and support when dealing with things that we may not fully understand and can help us to come up with solutions to problems that may arise or give us things to try that may help. This in turn will hugely benefit the child or children we are focusing on.

12. Think about the integrated working practices and examples of multi-agency working in your own workplace or experience.

(E.g. Area Inco, speech therapist, health visitor)

In my setting we would use multi agencies in order to gain the best possible learning and developmental opportunities for a child who has any extra needs which the setting itself cannot provide for example :- speech and language therapist, social worker, health visitor and doctors etc.

13. Describe the functions of external agencies with whom your work setting or service interacts. CYPC 6.1.3

|External agency |What do they do |
|Social Workers |They are employed by the social services and may work for a |
| |children’s centre or independently. They support children and |
| |families to help improve housing or support a family issue |
| |regarding a health need, poverty or bereavement ect. |
|Educational psychologist |They are employed by the local authority and they support |
| |children who might have specific learning or psychological |
| |needs. They would be referred by my setting. They sometimes work|
| |in independent offices or are sometimes situated in a school or |
| |children’s setting. |
|Health care professionals |These professionals are normally employed by the local primary |
|Speech and language therapists |healthcare trust and support individual children and families. |
|Health visitors |Referrals are often made by a GP or from awareness raised by a |
| |setting. They sometimes provide health screening for children |
| |and work closely with the setting and the family. |
|Representatives from voluntary organisations. |National association of toy and leisure libraries – they offer |
| |to make toys and books accessible to all. |
| |Childline- Is a free help line for children. |
| |National Children’s bureau- they work closely with professionals|
| |and use research to affect policy which ensures children can |
| |reach their potential. |

14) What are the common barriers to integrated working and multi agency working and how can these be overcome? CYPC 6. 1. 4.

Common barriers for integrated working and multi agency working are -:

1. When people have clearly been trained to fulfil a role they may find it strange to be managed by someone with different skills and areas of expertise.

2. They may have different priorities in their work with children and may deal with risks in a different way.

3. They may not be confident in or used to sharing their expertise and knowledge.

4. Each profession might have their own language/terms that they use that are only recognised by their own profession.

In order to overcome these barriers there are some things that can be done for example

• Have a lead professional to take the lead in coordinating professionals working together from different agencies , this person acts as a point of contact for a child and their families when a range of services are involved and an integrated response has been requested.

• Make sure that every profession is respected and any knowledge they may have is seen as a valuable asset to your multi agency work.

• Have forums available for professionals to share their practice with other professionals whilst being able to be open minded to consider different ways of working in a multi agency team.

• Have clear aims, roles and responsibilities and timetables that have been agreed by the different agencies.

• Make sure that good communication and information sharing takes place with regards to all multi agency working.

15) Research referrals and then -: explain how and why referrals are made between agencies. CYPC 6. 1. 5.

It is important that referrals are made in order for the child/children you are working with to get the best possible outcomes for example, If I was observing a child who I had noticed after a few observations had delayed speech then this evidence would be recorded then a referral should be put forward for the child to receive the right help and support from the right professionals. Panels are made up of different agencies and they determine what access is available between settings, They also aim to support the early identification of children’s needs, monitor children’s progress

And make sure a child’s needs are assessed and identified quickly and then refers them to the appropriate setting as well as coordinating provision through the development of partnerships with parents, settings and different agencies they also support inclusion in mainstream early years settings

It is very important to identify any need for additional support as early as possible because without it children will not get the help they need at the right time which could have an affect on the child’s well being. You must get permission from the Childs parents for any child to be referred and keep them well informed. Also early intervention teams have been set up in England to work with children with additional needs from birth to the end of the EYFS , the early intervention team will be part of the multi agency panel enabling referrals to be made between settings, they support the transition into school and ensure parents are fully aware of and involved in the referral process they also liaise with parents, carers and other multi-agency professionals.

16) What is the statutory assessment framework for children in your setting and in the UK?

Explain the assessment frameworks used in your setting CYPC 6.1.6

• The statutory assessment framework for the early years foundation stage is the most important legislation for all countries in the UK , from 2008 it has sat alongside health and safety legislation covering every aspect of the welfare of children in all early years settings including:-

• Safeguarding

• Suitable people

• Suitable premises and equipment

• Organisation

• Documentation

The statutory assessment framework is the responsibility of its relevant education services in each of the UK countries they are:-

• The department for children, schools and families in England (DCSF).

• The Scottish executive education department (SEED) in Scotland .

• The department for training and education in Wales (DFTE).

• The department of education in Northern Ireland (DENI).

These standards are monitored by ofsted in England, HMIE in Scotland, ESTYN in Wales and the ETI in Northern Ireland.

There are some differences in the exact application of health and safety legislation in each country in the United Kingdom, Things to be aware of in the framework are:-

1. The health and safety at work act 1974.

2. Product safety marking i.e. BSI kite mark.

3. Motor vehicles (wearing of seatbelts) (amendment) regulations 2006.

4. Control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH) Regulations 2002.

5. Reporting of injuries, Diseases and dangerous occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995.

6. Childcare Act 2006- It sets out the statutory framework for assessment of settings, including health and safety in the EYFS in force from September 2008 IN England and Wales.

7. Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act 2001 and the appropriate National Care Standards.

8. Smoking Ban- UK- wide in indoor public places from 1 July 2007. (EYFS has a legal requirement to ensure children are always in a smoke free environment).

9. Food hygiene legislation 2006 (European directives).

In my settings policy and procedures and staff hand book all areas of the statutory assessment framework are covered to give all staff a clear understanding of what is expected of them regarding the statutory assessment frame work and who is the person to turn to regarding each matter.

This includes the EYFS learning and development requirements which compromise

• The seven areas of learning which are

1. Communication and language;

2. Physical development;

3. Personal, social and emotional development.

We as child care providers must support children in the four specific areas which mean the three prime areas are strengthened and applied. The four specific areas are

1. Literacy.

2. Mathematics.

3. Understanding the world.

4. Expressive arts and design.

• The early learning goals which are covered in each area of learning in the statutory assessment frame work. They are used to summarise the knowledge, skills and understanding that all children should have gained by the end of the reception year

• Lastly the assessment requirements which is- when and how practitioners must assess children’s achievements, and when and how to discuss children’s progress with parents and/or carers.

In my setting I use the EYFS to help me observe, assess and then plan for a child’s learning and development I do this by observing a child then assessing and analysing any observations to help me plan for a child’s next steps.

The SEN code of practice gives guidance on meeting the learning needs of children with special educational needs.

In my setting we assess children on a regular basis we make these assessments from observations of a child’s play and learning and any information shared by parents/carers we also do a progress check at 2 years old and an assessment at the end of the eyfs to check a child’s learning and development. If we have any significant emerging concerns or an identified special educational need or disability we will develop a targeted plan to support the child’s future learning and development involving other professionals( for example my settings special educational needs co-ordinator where appropriate.) The plan must describe the activities and strategies we intend to adopt to address any issues or concerns

CAF is a shared assessment and planning framework that is used by all practitioners working for children’s services in all local areas in England and Northern Ireland. CAF is in place to ensure a child or young person’s additional needs are identified as early as possible and to make sure agencies work together to meet those additional needs. In my setting I would use the common assessment frame work as follows

1. I would use a CAF checklist to identify if a child has any additional needs

2. I would then discuss the strengths and needs of the child using the common assessment framework.

3. And lastly I would decide what is needed to meet the child’s needs, at this point a lead professional may be appointed.

17) Select and explain appropriate communication methods for different circumstances. CYPC6.2.1

1. Verbal.

Verbal communication can be used in a variety of different ways and in many different circumstances which include, Interacting with children, parents and colleagues maybe during a discussion or whilst giving information or at meetings, also for giving feedback or receiving information or even whilst reading and singing to the children.

2. Written.

Written form of communication is also used in a lot of different circumstances which are writing letters, notices or permission slips, newsletters, labels, daily diary books, reports, forms, writing on notice boards or writing up agendas, minutes, records or notes from meetings, information such as policies and procedures, also for observations and assessments of children. Before taking up any written form of communication you must ensure any letters are error free and that they have been correctly addressed and also addressed appropriately, you must be sure to check any written content is clear and concise and make sure you have used official letter heading where appropriate.

3. Computer/Internet.

When using the computer/ internet in a setting you should first be aware that any information gained from a website is correct and also be careful about placing images of children on the internet. Circumstances where the internet or computer may be used for communication are to make a power point or other presentation of data to a group of interactive whiteboards.

Websites with interactive sections or giving general information on a daily or periodic basis may also be used and in some places digital portfolios of children’s observations to share with parents.

4. Telephone

There are some things to remember whilst using a telephone to communicate which are:- To be clear and remember to explain who you are and the reason for your call, you must also make sure any messages are recorded and are given to the recipient in time whilst also making sure the recipient understands your message and lastly you should make sure that any sensitive calls are made or taken in a quiet area.

Circumstances where a telephone may be used are for relaying or receiving information from parents or requesting information from parents and other sources. The telephone is also used to arrange meetings, ordering resources and arranging visits.

5. Video

Video is not so commonly used to communicate but is sometimes used in conferences, training and as a record of children’s learning.

6. Sign language

Sign language is used as a way of communicating for children or adults who may have a severe hearing impairment, if taught to a child early the child will use it more naturally. There are different sign languages which are British sign languages (BSL) or makaton. Different countries have their own.

18) You need to be able to prepare reports that are

• Accurate

• Legible

• Concise

• Meet legal requirements

Write a profile of a child in your setting. This is going to be shared with the parents and other staff members. It should include information about that child that will benefit others and remain within the bounds of confidentiality. This should include an introduction and a conclusion to set up why and what benefit the profile will be.


In my setting I would use an all about me form to document all about that particular child at that particular age and stage of development. Staff use these forms to assess changes/interests also family life and all other general areas of learning using this information to document any necessary next steps for that child to work towards. At parents evenings or at parent or carer request this information is discussed.

Example profile:



Child A

Preferred name:


Date of birth:


Who lives in my house:

My mummy, Daddy and Grandparents.

Things I have learnt to do:

1) Paint with a paint brush

2)Turn pages in a book by myself

3)Undo laces

4)Build a tower of six blocks

Next Steps:

1) Practice my walking.

2) Practice feeding myself at lunch time.

3) Continue to expand my emerging vocabulary.

Likes and dislikes:

I like to play with the tunnels, balls instruments and blocks the most and am also very good with the paint brush and have no major dislikes at the moment.

Dietary requirements/medication:


My Friends are:

William and jack

Toilet trained or not:

No, nappies and wipes kept on site

Daily routine:

I will have my weetabix on arrival to nursery then have my lunch and tea at normal nursery times. I like to drink tap water from a sippy cup and sometimes milk before I sleep which is usually just once when I become tiered. I sleep in a cot without a dummy as I do not need one. My lunch bag is blue and has my name on.


This form enables positive relationships with parents and good communication regarding any of that child’s needs, From this form children gain a better level of care and understanding from their key person and all others involved in their learning journey, This is because information such as dietary requirements/ allergies or whether or not a child has a comforter or who their friends are are all part of their own personal, physical, mental and emotional well being. This means a child is able to concentrate on learning things at the right pace for them also pointing out any areas for concern, this information is vital in helping us understand when or why problems may occur.

19) Think about the potential tension between maintaining confidentiality, with the need to disclose information.

You need to research situations where this potential tension may occur and analyse:

• Where abuse of a young child or person is suspected

• When it is suspected that a crime has been/may be committed. CYPC 6.3.3

• After researching these matters it is my understanding that if it is a safeguarding matter you could talk to your line manager about concerns if you are unsure but as a rule if you think a child is in danger always disclose this information as this is best for the child even if you feel you are breaking a confidence

When abuse of a child or young person is expected

• Do not promise to keep a secret.

• Ensure that you accurately record any conversations on an incident recording form.

• Share any information with the designated person in a confidential area.

• Ensure that you receive support because situations of this nature can be very upsetting and cause great personal strain.

• Remember the CAF is there to help you if you are concerned about a child and need to assess their needs at an early stage.

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