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communication

By Sannt Apr 22, 2014 2283 Words
 Communication is the process of understanding and sharing meanings (David Berlo 1960), in other word meaning is not shared until the person of the opposite end knows accurately what it is that you are trying to say or accomplish from what is being said, and if this have fail that means that meanings what not shared as the individual does not comprehend what was suppose to be understood.

According to Berlo-The Sender encodes the message through his speaking and writing skills. The receiver decodes the message through their listening and reading skills. Both sending and receiving are influenced by knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and the channel through which the message was sent affects skills. Communication when a person (source) sends a message through a channel to a receiver (another Person) once the message is received the receiver then sends a message back to the sender.

Examples of an SMCR Model
The SMCR model represents the process and phenomenon of communication. The acronym stands for source, message, channel and receiver, and this theory lays out the different components that form the net effect of communication. The 1949 publication "The Mathematical Theory of Communication" first proposed this theory of communications and coined the term SMCR model. Defining the Components

When looking at the sequence within the SMCR model, you can identify the basic structures of the modern perception of communication. The source represents where the information originates, the source of the communication. The message is the encrypted piece of information provided by the source. The channel, then, is the medium of transmission from the source to the receiver, and the receiver is the end recipient of the information. Interruptions in Communication

There are several different methods whereby disturbances offset this sequence of components, and challenge the communication process. Loss and distortion represent two common examples of disturbances. For example, disturbances can result from a person having less than superb communication skills. In this case, the source does not adequately express the feeling or idea. Another source of inadequacy in communication comes from the finite aspect of language itself. Since feelings and thoughts can easily surpass expressions available through language, feeling and thoughts often do not receive accurate representation. One Model Among Many

The SMCR model is a common form for sequencing communication, and other popular communications models typically use the same sequencing techniques. For example, David Berlo proposed a five-step communications process in 1960. Harold Lasswell similarly developed a communications model that recognizes the same sequencing for communication as the SMCR model.

An Early Theory of Communication

Writing thousands of years ago, Aristotle termed communication rhetoric and defined three primary aspects of all communications: the speaker, the subject, and the person being addressed. Aristotle determined that it was in fact the final part, the person addressed, who actually determines the meaning of the speech or other forms of communication. According to Aristotle, that person's interpretation ultimately establishes what the communication signifies. It is this person, in the final step of the communication process, who also determines whether communication happened at all. As with newer communications models, Aristotle's early theory acknowledges all four components of the SMCR model.

The berlo’s model follows the smcr model this model is not specific to any particular communication. Berlo’s model lives a number of factors under each of the elements: Source: The source is the message originates.

Communication skills – It is the individual’s skill to communicate (ability to read, write, speak, listen etc…) Attitudes – The attitude towards the audience, subject and towards one self for e.g. for the student the attitude is to learn more and for teachers wants to help teach. Knowledge- The knowledge about the subject one is going to communicate for e.g. whatever the teacher communicates in the class about the subject so having knowledge in what you are communicating. Note: It is not talking about the general knowledge it is all about the knowledge of the subject, so it is the familiarity of what you are communicating. Social system – The Social system includes the various aspects in society like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of society. It is the communication takes place. For e.g. classroom differs from country to country like behaviors, how we communicate etc. Note: We can communicate only to the extent that the social system allows, when we communicate take social system into account. Culture: Culture of the particular society also comes under social system. All to this model, only if you have the above in the proper or adequate proportion v can communicate. Encoder: The sender of the message (message originates) is referred as encoder, so the source is encoding the message here. Message

Content – The beginning to the end of a message comprises its content for e.g. from beginning to end whatever the class teacher speaks in the class is the content of the message. Elements – It includes various things like language, gestures, body language etc., so these are all the elements of the particular message. Content is accompanied by some elements. Treatment – It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which the message is conveyed or the way in which the message is passed on or deliver it. Note: When it is too much treatment also the communication will not happen properly. Structure- The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you structure the message into various parts. Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly arranged then the message will not get to the receiver. Code- The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it could be e.g. language, body language, gestures, music and even culture is a code. Through this you get/give the message or through which the communication takes place or being reached. Note:  Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear, improper use may lead to misinterpretation. Channel-   It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The following are the five senses, which we use Hearing

Seeing
Touching
Smelling
Tasting
Whatever communication we do it is they’re either of these channels. Hearing: The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages, interpersonal etc. Seeing: Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message is delivered. Touching: The sense of touch can be used as a channel to communicate for e.g. we touch and buy food, hugging etc. Smelling: Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g. perfumes, food, charred smell communicates something is burning, we can find out about which food is being cooked etc. Tasting: The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can be tasted and communication can happen. Note: Despite not mentioning a medium we need to assume that as communication is taking place channels can be any of the 5 senses or combination. Decoder: Who receives the message and decodes it is referred to as decoder. Receiver: The receiver needs to have all the thinks like the source. This model believes that for an effective communication to take place the source and the receiver needs to be in the same level, only if the source and receiver are on the same level communication will happen or take place properly. So source and receiver should be similar For e.g. Communication skills on source side is good then the receiver should equally have good listening skills. We cannot say the entire message passed doesn’t reaches the receiver has it is because the receiver may not good in listening, so only for the effective communication the source and the receiver to be in the same level. Note: Self image differs from person to person, for communicating the person should consider the receiver. Keep the receiver in mind, speak accordingly and give them what they need. Criticism of berlo’s smcr model of communication:

1. No feedback / don’t know about the effect
2. Does not mention barriers to communication
3. No room for noise
4. Complex model
5. It is a linear model of communication
6. Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life 7. Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel, which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc.).

This model shows how having the skills to deliver your most inner thoughts through communication can be the difference between success and failure its completely clear s and demonstrates that for what purpose communication is designed for and what are those imperative factors that makes it effective. I thought this to be a great post except where they state that the sender and the receiver must be on the same level for the message to work. Instead I feel that as the sender it is your responsibility to adjust your message to fit the level of your target in any situation. This is the key to good communication through a written message.

Berlo’s elements of communication its very good but we don’t have all student with the same characteristics and ability simply because they come from different culture following the berlo communication model it is difficult to use this communication model to teach the children at the context of having the same attitude with the sender also the sender from different culture can send the message to some one else and message are well received. He make me aware about communication in general, berlo model is the best method of communicate. The model is so good and applicablicable in real life situation. Presence of weaknesses makes us think more about it so as to com with more than that. On top of that, the model is applicable to all communication and if so how teacher will teach students a new language? Apart from that how can you change the negative behavior of the second part if attitude are thing to be considered to be the same? Lastly why even though you may teach people having the same communication skills but still fail? Why? The barrier of communication must be there such as field experience and physical noise. Even commutation (teaching) in the classroom situation and to us as college students. Some one says the SMCR model is a “non linear”. They make arguments depending on same features mentioned in S & R. I think its false idea. In berlo’s “model” there is no feedback. (.ONLEY HE MENTIONED ABOUT FEED BACK IN HIS EXPLANATIONS). I think that he wanted to explain the how work communication process in a single situation. I think that’s why he did not mentioned about Feed Back in his model, and why it was linear.

The following assignment will describe communication such as verbal and non-verbal communication along with active listening. . Looking at how communication can be effected and interrupted and how the use of effective communication can benefit patient care. The Model of communication I will be applying is the Berlo Model of communication. In addition I will be sharing the outcomes of my recent clinical experience.

The Berol Model of Communication helps us understand how communication works and how communications can either facilitate the development of a relationship or create barriers (Stuart and Sundee 1995, cited in Riley 200). Communication involves both receiving messages and giving messages; a two-way method spoken words and non-verbal messages.

The Berol Model of communication has four distinct components. Source –Sends a message through a channel to a receiver (another person). Message-someone shares an idea, feeling or information with another person. Channel-The way the information is being expressed is the channel. Receiver-Once the message has been received the receiver then decodes the information sent.

What are the differences between the SMCR model of persuasion and Rank’s model? The simplest model of persuasion is Shannon and Waver’s SMCR Model. SMCR includes a source (S) (or persuader), who or which is the encoder of the message. The message (M) can have many forms and it conveys the source’s meaning through any of the codes. A channel (C) carries the message, it can be print or electric, and it can be presented clearly or with distractions. Last, a receiver (R) (or persuade) decodes the message, trying to sift out channel noise and adding his own interpretation (Larson, pg. 23). The source-encoder is influenced by several factors including its communication skills, attitude, knowledge level, and position in the social-cultural system (Berlo, 1960). The receiver is influenced by these same factors, and the sender must account for these factors in deciding how to communicate the message in an effective manner. Being a critical receiver means being prepared for the motives of the source, message elements, channel effects, and the receivers own interpretations of the source’s argument. Rank’s model of persuasion offers a model to identify doublespeak. He called it the “intensify/downplay model” and its goal is to help people become more critical and analytical receivers. It discusses the persuader’s goal, defines four persuasive strategies and the tactics used to put these strategies in place (Larson, pg. 29). The strategies are to intensify positive aspects of their product or negative aspects of the competitor’s, or to downplay negative aspects of their brand or positive aspects of the competing brand. These tactics can be used logically, or emotionally to accomplish the persuader’s intentions. Intensification uses tactics such as 1) repetition (slogans, jingles, etc.), 2) association (linking the brand to a positive or negative idea held by the audience), and 3) composition (nonverbal things such as layout, design, font, etc.). The goal of...

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