1.1 Communication is something we do every day, and we must learn to do from the day we are born, in order to interact with others and become a functional member of society. We must constantly improve our communication skills in order to express how we feel, to understand the needs of others, to listen and to learn. There are many different ways in which we are able to communicate, verbal is just one and the most common, we also communicate with actions and expressions. For communication to be effective we also have to be able to understand what people are trying to communicate to us. Knowing how to speak does not mean you know how to communicate. Ways in which we can communicate without verbal communication are: Body language
Gestures such as using our hands
Writing and drawing
Using equipment such as computers
Emotions (a combination of the above)
1.1 This is behaviour where communication can be achieved through actions and body language alone. For example hand gestures are something most people do without noticing. When talking we use our hands to emphasise points such as a size of an object, we tend to move our hands to mimic the size, pointing in a direction, a handshake or a wave as a greeting. When we say goodbye we often wave and when on a phone and someone is trying to speak to us we put our hand to our ear. In social situations such as when talking to friends we use hand gesture for a drink or for something to eat, to sit down we point to a chair as has been demonstrated above we use gestures every day in all situations. 1.1 Body language can be the first clue to identify someone’s mood. Such as how the body moves when we walk, how we stand, people don’t have to say anything to show how they feel. Facial expression can say so many things, as children we are taught a smile is happy a frown is sad. 1.2 a hand over is considered to be crucial part of providing quality care; this aids communication between team members and benefited care. Documentation and communication during handover, information sharing reporting any incidents and concerns. Staff meetings are supplemented with agendas, to discuss events that you may feel concerned about. It is a good way in which we can communicate on a face to face basis; it is also a good opportunity to say well done to team members to boost morale. It helps with polices and good practice. We all have a voice it gives us a chance to have our say. 2.1 2.2 2.3, 2.4 another form of communication is eye contact. This is looking at someone directly for a sustained period without breaking contact, this can express interest, trust and understanding; it means you are listening to them. Short or broken eye contact can show nervousness shyness or mistrust. Touch such as rubbing their arm through their clothes or physical touching, this is skin to skin, such as when holding a patients hand. Some patients find touch reassuring, it can calm them offering comfort and relief from daily stresses. Reassurance can be established by holding their hand or placing the hand on their shoulder or arm. By doing this you are letting them know that everything is going to be ok; you understand how they are feeling, showing empathy and kindness towards them. Some people are unable to use any form of communication other than facial expressions. For instance they maybe in pain and the only way they can express this feeling is through their facial movements. As a carer you need to notice their facial expression that may change if they are uncomfortable they may twitch, this is about noticing change in someone. 3.1 And 3.2 The possibility of miscommunication increases when a career and resident speak different languages, idioms and frames of reference can carry different meanings in one language that may not exist in another. Mispronunciation or incorrect signing can be misleading. Noise can become a barrier someone shouting an alarm ringing these can become distractions you may be ask to chat somewhere quieter if needed. 3.2 Sensory deprivation disability, visual impairment and hearing impairment can act as a barrier when trying to communicate. The tone and manner of how we use our voice as carers can convey a lot of information. 3.2 3.3 some people are unable to speak to you but can completely understand what you are saying. They may use writing or some form of equipment, there are computers that will become a voice. If someone needs to write it down make sure they have the correct pen, pencil and paper; be patient they may need time, sometimes visual aids are needed such as flash cards or pictures they can point to. At the end of life hearing and touch are what we use to communicate. It is said that talking to the person and holding their hand can be a comfort, they will know that you are there reassuring them they are not alone. 3.2 Caring for multiple residents at times can be distracting a resident requires your committed attention. Carers often tend to use phrases such as (did we enjoy our breakfast or how are we feeling today) this can alienate a resident rather than connecting with them, save the plural pronouns for when they apply such as when you get back from therapy we’ll have a talk about your progress. 3.3 Always be calm, reassuring and speak slowly, this will make the patient feel at ease. Ask only one question at a time, if needed repeat the question but wait for a response, as they may need time to process the question. Some people can get confused if your questions are not clear, this can also lead to them not responding. With hearing impairment a gesture or sign language may be needed when speaking to them, hold their hand and get down to their level if they are sitting down. When working with patients with hearing impairments it is good practice to always keep good eye contact and face to face communication. 3.3 A physical closeness between people during interaction, being physically close to someone may be reassuring and may be seen as accepting. Awareness of someone’s personal space is important to communicate effectively, sitting or standing to close may make them feel uncomfortable, if needed reposition yourself and ask or gesture if this is ok.
3.3 Good communication skills are about many things how to listen, when to notice, to be able to hear or see what a person is saying. It is about being patient and getting down to their level, to be understanding and always trying to reassure the patient. Remember the person may be confused or scared, or just simply doesn’t understand, this is when you need to think of other ways to communicate.
4.1 confidentiality and privacy belongs to each person and as such it cannot be taken away from that person unless it is their wish for it to be shared. On the other hand it means that the information shared with someone else will not be spread about and used only for the purpose intended. A resident sharing personal private information imposes a duty of confidentiality that duty means carers will share information on a need to know basis. 4.2 breach of confidentiality is sharing information verbally or written form regarding a resident with someone who is not part of the care team of that resident, indiscretion is an action in which you inadvertently share confidential information. There is no bad intent associated with an indiscretion, informed consent is when a resident acknowledelges and allows the release of information to others. Confidential is defined as not available for public knowledge. 4.3 where any form of abuse is suspected if you have any concerns it is your duty to inform the manager, when a resident discloses this information to you do not ever promise to keep it a secret, it can cause tension between you and a resident, but you have a duty of care to provide to protect the resident to report a suspected abuse you must breach your confidentiality when a resident safety comes in to question.