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By missqna May 11, 2013 765 Words


Communication can be define as the activity of conveying information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. There are four functions of communication. First is to control the member behavior whether it is in formal or informal communication. Mostly in an organization, they use the formal communication for the guidelines that employees need to follow meanwhile informal communication occur in a work groups. The second is to give motivation to the employees what is to be done, how well they are doing and what can be done to improve performance. Third is to provide a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. Lastly the function of communication is to provide information needed to make decisions.

Communication process is the steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. There are eight elements of the communication process. Process of communication is starting from the sender then the message will be encoding before reach the receiver. The message will be transferred through the channel. Channel is the medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. There are two types of channel, formal and informal. Formal channel is mostly used by an organization to transmit an professional message among the members meanwhile informal channel is used to transmit personal message in an organization. After the message received, it will trough the decoding process before receive to the receiver. Noise and feedback will be the result of the communication process.

There are three types direction of communication. Upward communication can be defined as the lower level in hierarchy to the higher level. This communication is to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress, and relay current problems. Second is lateral communication which means the communication takes place among the members of same group or work group where this communication are often necessary to save time and facilitate coordination. Lastly is downward communication. This communication flows is from higher level in hierarchy to lower level. Downward communication occurs because of to provide instructions, communicate policies and procedures, and provide feedback and to assign goals. Interpersonal communication is divided into three, first is oral communication such as speeches, group discussion and grapevine. The advantage of this communication is speed and feedback, but the disadvantage will arise when the message must be through a number of people producing distortion. Meanwhile written communication such as the memos, letters, electronic email, faxes, periodicals and bulletin boards will give the advantage on the evidence, which is this communication, are tangible and verifiable. The disadvantages of this communication are time consuming, lack of feedback and no guarantee of receipt. Lastly is nonverbal communication which includes body movements, the intonations, facial expressions, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver. Organizational communication is divided into two, such as the grapevine which is known as network of friendship will give the efficient information to others and electronic communication such as an e-mail, text messaging, networking software, blogs and video conferencing. There are three characteristics if rich channels. Channel richness is the amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. The characteristic are handle multiple cues simultaneously, facilitate rapid feedback and are very personal in contact. Barriers to effective communication occur when a sender’s manipulation the information which can be seen more favorably by the receiver is known as filtering. Second is selective perception which means the people selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Next will be the information overload. It can be define as a condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity. Meanwhile emotions occurs on how a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language is also one of the communication barriers which means by the words have different meanings to different people. Next is employee silence. It occurs when managers lack information about ongoing operational problems and silence regarding discrimination, harassment, corruption, and misconduct occurs when top management cannot take action to eliminate this behavior. Communication apprehension is one of the communication barriers which is occurs when undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication and both. Lastly is lying. Lying will happen if there have the outright misrepresentation of information.

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