top-rated free essay

Communicable Diseases

By gbhetz5 Nov 05, 2012 723 Words
Communicable Disease
* Keep in mind all have fever, swollen LN, rash etc.
Scarlet Fever:
* Cause: Group A beta Hemolytic Streptococcus
* Spread via direct contact/droplet
* May lead to RF
* Uvula/pharynx beefy red; tonsils have white exudate, pinpoint lesions on palate * Sandpaper rash
* Pastina Sign: hyperpigmentation at joints
* TONGUE (white furry white strawberry strawberry )
* So throat culture if they have strept/sore throat
*** Anybody with a sore throat that comes down to school nurse- do not send them back to class, have them sent for throat culture *** Varicella:
* Infectious before rash and until vesicles crust * kid cant go back to school until vesicles are crusted * Strict isolation (from A. those who haven’t had varicella vaccine B. < 12months of age) * ACUTE PHASE: maculopapular rash turns to vesicle with erythematous base oozes and crusts * Itchy scratch spread/2nd infection

* @ Risk for Reye’s Syndrome
* Itchiness – give Benadryl
* PREVENTION vaccinate
Rubeola: (measles)
* Koplik spots ( white circumscribed in red in mouth)
* May have photophobia – wear sunglasses
* PREVENTION: MMR
Rubella:
* Fever is not marked
* Birth defects if mother exposed in first trimester
* **Tylenol for (fever, pain, H/A)
* ISOLATE FROM PREGNANT WOMEN
Roseola Infantum:
* HHV6
* Rash appears AFTER a DECLINE in fever
* At risk for febrile seizures-manage temperature
Erythema Enfectiosum:
- ISOLATE FROM PREGNANT WOMAN EVEN IF OWN CHILD HAS IT. CAN NOT BE AROUND MOM -“5th Disease”
- spread via droplet, no specific TX
-Stage I – “slap cheek” 1-120days may last; Stage III- RECURRENCE of rash (with exercise temperature change etc) Impetigo:
* Group A beta hemolytic STREPT, STAPH AUREUS
* Insect bite
* Contact isolation as long as vesicle present
* Lesion begin as honey color serum then yellow to brown crusts * Complication: postreptococcal glomerulonephritis (decrease urine, change color) * Culture vesicle
* Children should remain home from school and daycare fo 48 hours until on antibiotics or lesions r dry * PREVENTION: handwashing, child should not touch lesion, don’t share towel etc Pediculosis:

* Preschooler at increased risk
* All socioeconomic classes
* Pedicclosis vs. Dandruff (* can brush dandruff out; ped. Stays in hair when brushing) * Nit ( egg) louse (insect)
* DO NO JUMP FORM HEAD TO HEAD, spread via direct contact * Part hair, magnify to Dx
* Shampoo, disinfect sheets with HOT water, teach not to exchange combs, headgear Scabies:
* Happen to anyone
* Burrow – leaves debris under skin
* Cleanliness is NOT protection
* Scabacide Q12h- apply everywhere besides genitalia and face Parastic Infections
* Roundworm (GI); Hookworm (human feces); Pinworm (cecum) * PINWORMS: cause intense itching- child doesn’t wash hands- touches door knob etc. * PINWORMS: may be dosplayed as ADHD problem; so itchy

* PINWORM: Dx by anal scotch tape=lay eggs in anal tissue, examined then by microscope * PINWORM: Vermox; Tx all household members
Fungal:
Tinea Cruris: jock itch
Tinea Pedis: athlete foot
Tinea Capitus: ringworm
Tinea Corporis: skin
( to tx these use po griseofulvin or OTC fungal cream)
Conjunctivitis:
-inclusion (newborn), allergic (in response to allergn), gonorrheal (infant passing thru birth canal), bacterial (self limiting, HIGHLY contagious), or via foreign obj (metal) - TX Edema: cold compress; Tx crust: warm compress; don’t want to lay there with warm compress b/c bacterial growth, child don’t rub eyes

Immunologic Dysfunction
(ANEMIA)
* *Incidence: most common hematologic D/O child
* *Etiology: decrease reticulocyte count and Hgb
* effects amount of Hgb available to carry O2
* activity intolerance: pallor, no energy, fatigue **Takes a while for H&H to decrease so this wouldn’t be first s/s * anemia develops slowly
* will have increased HR and cardiac output to compensate * cluster care, frequent rest periods, safety

(SICKLE CELL ANEMIA)
* defective Hgb molecule that changes RBC shape to sickle cell * PAIN extremeeeeee
* CRISIS: Sickle cells destroyed by spleen – tangle- hypoxia – tissue eschemia – necrosis * Most common in African American
* Decreased life span
* Each person has different thing that causes crisis ( weather, temperature, elevation) * S/s develop after 6months because up to 6month fetal Hgb is in use * Crisis Long Term Complications: Heart, lung, kidney brain changes; blood becomes thicker each time * CVA # 1 cause death (complication) b/c cerebral occlusion * 4 crisis: 1. Vaso-occlusive = tangled cells; 2. Aplastic =decreased bone marrow, infection; 3. Acute Sequestration Crisis= massive entrapment of RBC in spleen, hypovolemic shock; 4. Hemolytic = combo glucose 6 and sickle cell * No labs are definitive

* No cure…treat s/s
* Pain control keep hydrated keep away from things that cause crisis * Dx: peripheral smear
* Assess all body parts
* Moniter I&O, weigh pt

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Communicable diseases P1 P2

    ...Communicable diseases include malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, infant’s diarrhoea, measles and poliomyelitis diseases are passed on to people who are not already affected by it. To collect this data we use mortality rates, morbidity rates, disease incidence, disease prevalence and disability adjusted life years. They are spreading from pers...

    Read More
  • Mutative Diseases

    ...drastically. There are some mutations that are considered to be valuable, as well as a silent one which does not affect you at all. The mutations heard about most often are those that cause disease such as, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, and Tay-Sachs disease (Genetics.) These specific diseases are both devastating and life changing. Ea...

    Read More
  • communicable diseases

    ...INFECTIOUS DISEASES COMMON IN THE PHILIPPINES REVIEW OF TERMS 1. Epidemiology – science, study of patterns of disease for its control and prevention 2. Patterns of Disease Occurrence a. Sporadic – occasional, intermittent a.i. Meningococcemia b. Endemic – continuous, constant in a given locality b.i. Malaria, Dengue (in tropi...

    Read More
  • Communicable Diseases

    ...Communicable Disease Communicable diseases have been a plague on mankind since the beginning of history. Communicable diseases can instill fear, panic, and public outrage. The outcry for communicable disease control, prevention, and eradication has been the driving force behind physicians and organizations. Understanding the communicable disea...

    Read More
  • Communicable Disease

    ...Communicable Disease/Hepatitis Francois Drof HCS/457 March 18, 2013 Lindsay Cogan Communicable Disease/Hepatitis B The communicable disease I have chosen for this paper is Hepatitis. Hepatitis B is a liver disease that is caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). This virus can cause infections that can last a life time. These infections...

    Read More
  • Communicable Disease

    ...Communicable Disease Student Name: Course No: Date: Instructor: A communicable disease can be defined as a disease that is spread or can be spread from one individual to another or sometimes from an animal to a human being (Webber, 2009). The spread of a communicable disease does not only happen through airborne bacteria or...

    Read More
  • 20 Communicable Diseases

    ...Pertussis is a highly contagious bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable, violent coughing. The coughing can make it hard to breathe.  A deep "whooping" sound is often heard when the patient tries to take a breath Cause. Pertussis, or whooping cough, is an upper respiratory infection caused by the Bordetella pertussis or Bordetella...

    Read More
  • Over Nutrition (Obesity and Non-Communicable Diseases)

    ...NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES) In the past, overweight people were believed to be the healthiest, more likely to have resistance to diseases and infections (Ebbeling et al, 2002). Some decades ago, the increase in non-communicable diseases associated with overweight and obesity has arguably become a public health problem in developed countries a...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.