Faculty of law
University of Nigeria nsukka enugu campus
Discuss the common cancers of the reproductive system
A seminar presented in partial fulfillment of the course natural science (gs 105) By
Ndu gabriella okesinachi
Lecturer.dr v.a ezeokoye
2. Cervical cancer.
-Signs and Symptoms
-Treatment and Management.
3. Prostate Cancer
-Signs and symptoms
-Treatment and Management
COMMON CANCERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
We define tumor as new abnormal growth of tissue. Normally after puberty our body stops growing, but tissue cells continue dividing in order to replace those cells that die of injury or old age. Sometimes an abnormal cell with capacity to divide out of control may arise. This cluster of abnormal cells then forms a tumor. A tumor is simply a swelling and does not necessarily imply cancer. If a tumor does not grow or only grows in its local area, it is called benign tumor. However, if it has the capability to spread to other areas of the body, then it is called malignant tumor and can be called cancer. Malignant tumors show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign tumor. Tumors can develop in each part of human body, from every type of tissue. When speaking of reproductive system - each part can develop or be affected by a tumor. Most common cancer sites in males are prostate and testis, and in females breast, corpus and cervix uteri and ovaries. Looking at the statistics comparing most common cancer sites in the body to reproductive system cancer sites, it is evident that prostate cancer is second cancer site overall (11%) in males and in females first place overall is breasts (23%), uterine body (6%), followed by uterine cervix (4%) Cervical cancer is directly connected with exposure to HPV, primarily during unprotected sex at an early age. Recurrent infections in males by any type of STD, most frequently at young adulthood, poses a high risk of developing prostate cancer in that individual when over 65. Trends in Cancer Mortality, 1973-1992 (% change in death rate): • Prostate cancer: +23.2% (deaths in 1992: 34,240, second highest after lung in men) • Testicular cancer: -66.2%
• Breast cancer: -0.6% (deaths in 1992: 43,068, second highest after lung in women) • Ovarian cancer: -6.2% (deaths in 1992: 13,393, fifth highest in women) • Uterine (non-cervical) cancer: -25.9%
• Uterine (cervical) cancer: -43.1%
COMMON CANCERS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
Common cancers in females are cancers of the cervix, uterus and breast, the commonest being cervical cancer. CERVICAL CANCER
Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy of the female reproductive tract. It occurs in the fifth and sixth decades of life at the mean age of 54 years. It is common in women of low socio-economic status. The Pap test can detect 90% or more of early cervical neoplasia (pre-invasive changes in cervical cells) and its use have reduced deaths from cervical cancer by more than 50%. Cervical cancer could be eliminated as a cause of death in all women if they had annual Pap tests (beginning no later than age 20); however, fewer than 40% of women do. In northern Nigeria it is the commonest cancer while in southern Nigeria it is second to breast cancer. According to the American Cancer Society, about 90 percent of the women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer survive for at least one year after diagnosis. The five-year relative survival rate is about 70 percent. Women diagnosed with cervical cancer in situ have a five-year relative survival rate of about 90 percent. However, only about half of all cervical cancers are discovered at this stage. In general, survival rates are significantly lower for women of low socioeconomic status, probably...
References: • Akin Agboola 2nd Ed. (2006) Textbook Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology For Medical Students. Heinemann Educational Books(Ltd).
• Norman L. Browse Et Al. 4th Ed.(2005) Browses’ Introduction To The Signs And Symptoms Of Surgical Disease. Book Power Publishing
• Walsh Patrick Et Al
• Kirstner Robert.4th Ed.(1986)Gynaecology
• Reproductive System Disease (2009) Encyclopaedia Britannica
• Cervical Cancer. Microsoft Student 2007.(DVD).Redmond War :Microsoft Corporation, 2006.
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