1. Exchange and trade of goods between communities in different ecological zones has been a prominent feature of human history. Trade emerged from the vast environment and cultural diversities of the region. Long distance trade became very important because if more distance was traveled then merchants could exchange with more cultures, and prospered when societies involved in these trade roads offered security for merchants and traders. The uneven distribution of goods and resources of both natural and human activity has long motivated long distance exchange. Natural resources gained many economical value and this motivated merchants to continue doing the long distance trade. Merchants were very high rated in the social pyramid because of trading these valuable resources. Human activity helped shape cultures in political and social aspects because merchants traveled around the world and learned the more efficient ways to govern and different cultures or rituals they could adapt. Trade helped shape and link societies and people from the entire world and this motivated and sustained long distance commerce.
2. Eastern Hemisphere societies developed long distance trade more extensively than Western Hemisphere societies because of geography. Some geographical differences added obstacles. For example the narrow bottleneck of Panama covered with dense rain forest that made almost impossible the connection between North and South America. In the Eastern Hemisphere had similar environments in all the routes which made the development more rapidly. Also the help of animals to carry some goods helped the spread in trade more efficient in Eastern Hemisphere societies. Domestic animals like horses, donkeys, and camels, or wheel vehicles and large oceangoing vessels facilitated Eastern Hemisphere trade. In the Western Hemisphere there were no animal like that so humans had to carry all weight, and this made very inefficient the Western Hemisphere trade.
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